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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (147)
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1

Shock

Lack of perfusion

2

Pump problem

cariogenic shock

3

Cardiogenic shock - History Findings

-massive MI
-dilated cardiomyopathies
-tamponade
-myocarditis
-CHF
-Toxin

4

Cardiogenic shock - physical exam

pulmonary edema = wet lungs

5

Cardiogenic shock - treatment

ICU and cardiology

6

Plumping - pipe problems

Distributive

7

Types of distributive

septic, neurogenic, anaphylaxis

8

Septic - history

fever, infection, gram-negative

9

Septic - physical findings

bounding pulses

10

Septic - later stages

urine output goes down, pulse quickly goes to crap, body shutting down

11

Septic - treatment

treat the infection

12

Neurogenic

-head or cervical or spine injury
-lose of SNS tone to everything below the level of the injury
-poor profusion below injury

13

Neurogenic - physical findings

bradycardia

14

Neurogenic - treatment

neurosurgery

15

Anaphylaxis - history

bee sting, food, penicillin

16

Anaphylaxis

-IgE cause of initial part of reaction
-airway starting to close down
-kill people is the cardiovascular collapse
-airway is second most common cause of death

17

Anaphylaxis - physical findings

from anaptyctic shock blood pressure is going to crap

18

Anaphylaxis - treatment

-epinephrine causes vasodilation
-Benadryl and xanax
-steroids = longer benefit

19

Fluid problems = not enough

Hypovolemic

20

Hypovolemic - history

-trauma
-dehydration
-burns
-sweating
-urinating a lot
-vomiting
-diarrhea
-bleeding
-third space in fluids

21

Hypovolemic - physical findings

-dry lungs
-respiratory rate and heart rate are elevated

22

Aortic stenosis - common causes

senile degeneration and calcification
-calcified after age 65
congenitally bicuspid aortic valve
-calcified around age 30
rheumatic fever
-commissure calcify in 3rd or 4th decade

23

Aortic Stenosis

-systolic ejection murmur - throughout
-NARROW pulse pressure

24

Aortic insufficiency (regurgitation) - common cause - infection

bacterial endocarditis

25

Aortic insufficiency (regurgitation) - common cause - congenital

bicuspid AoV

26

Aortic insufficiency (regurgitation) - common cause - increased afterload

systemic hypertension (poorly controlled)

27

Aortic insufficiency (regurgitation)

-soft high pitched diastolic murmur
-widened pulse pressure
-no beta blockers = increased diastolic time and preload

28

Mitral stenosis - common cause

-rheumatic valve disease

29

Mitral stenosis

-opening snap
-low-pitched rumbling diastolic murmur

30

Mitral stenosis - ECG changes

-left atrial enlargement
-right ventricular hypertrophy