A15 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in A15 Deck (100):
1

كُلْفَة : ( اسم ) : نَفَقَة

Charge
cost ; expenditure ; expense ; outlay ; overhead

2

ضَئِيلة : ضَئِيل : ( اسم ) قَلِيل ، زَهِيد

Exiguous
fractional ; inadequate ; inconsiderable ; insignificant ; insufficient ; little ; meager ; negligible ; scanty ; scarce ; slender ; slight ; slim ; small ; sparse ; thin ; trivial

3

تَدَنِي : ( اسم ) : هُبُوط ، اِنْخِفاض
ماضي : تَدَنَّى
مضارع : يَتَدَنَّى

Decline
decrease ; depreciation ; depression ; diminution ; drop(ping) ; dwindling ; fall-off ; fall(ing) ; shrinkage ; shrinking ; sinking ; slump

4

مُنْتَدَب : ( اسم ) : مَنْدُوب ، مُوفَد ، مُمَثِّل ، مُفَوَّض
ماضي : اِنتُدِبَ
مضارع : يُنتَدَبُ

Authorized
(to) ; consigned (to) ; empowered ; entrusted (to) ; entrusted (with) ; furnished with power ; invested with authority

5

شَهِيّة : شَهِيّ : ( اسم ) : شَهْوَة

Appetency
craving ; desire ; hankering ; hunger ; longing ; yearning

6

مُنَوِهاً : مُنَوِه : ( اسم ) : مُشِير
ماضي : نَوَّهَ
مضارع : يُنَوِّهُ

Point to
indicate ; make mention of ; make reference to ; mention ; name ; point out to ; refer to ; speak of ; specify ; state

7

تَوَخِّي : ( اسم ) : الاِنتِبَاه
ماضي : تَوخِى
مضارع : يَتَوَخَى

Intention
plan

8

طَفْرَة : ( اسم ) : تَفَجُّر، ثَوَرَا

Gust
outburst ; surge

9

ضَخَامَة : ( اسم ) : كِبَر ، جَسَامة

Bigness
bulkiness ; enormity ; enormousness ; greatness ; grossness ; hugeness ; immensity ; largeness ; massiveness ; sizableness ; tremendousness ; vastness ; luminosity

10

مُقَوّمات : مفردها : مُقَوِم : ( اسم ) : أسَاس

Basic factors
basics ; components ; constituents ; elements ; essentials ; fundamentals ; ingredients ; vitals

11

تَحْفِيز : ( اسم ) : حَفْز ( كيمياء )
ماضي : حَفَّزَ
مضارع : يُحَفِّزُ

Stimulates
catalysis - the process of making a chemical reaction quicker by adding a catalyst

12

تَرْشِيد : ( اسم ) : إِرْشاد : هِدَايَة
ماضي : أرشَدَ
مضارع : يُرجِعُ

Direction
- control, management, or advice; management from the director of a film, play or television programmer
- act of directing something towards a particular purpose or according to the plan
- guiding or controlling
- steering; controlling the direction of a ship
- advice; consultation; opinions; suggestions
- guiding; directing; leading
- the act of directing or constructing
- guiding or directing
- guidance or showing the way to
- noun gerund of verb (to usher)
- showing the right path or manner of behaving (to)

13

نَفْع : ( اسم ) : فائِدَة
ماضي : نَفَعَ
مضارع : يَنفَعُ

Advantage
avail ; benefit ; good ; profit ; use ; usefulness ; utility ; welfare

14

مُوَاءَمَة : ( اسم ) : اِنْسِجام ، اِتّفاق
ماضي : وائَمَ
مضارع : يُوائِمُ

Accord
agreement ; concord ; harmony ; rapport

15

تَظَافُر: ( اسم ) : تَآزُر
ماضي : تَظَافَرَ
مضارع : يَتَظَافَرُ

Hand
- a share in an action; active support
- deed done by cooperation
- mutual backing; boost; cooperation; collaboration; support; aid
- help; aid; backing; collaboration; support; cooperation; boost
- state of work jointly with others
- act of contribution; something contributed (money, help,etc)
- state of working or acting together in order to bring
- joint efforts
- the process of granting or a thing granted
- combining of forces and efforts
- extra soldiers, ships, tanks, etc sent to reinforce armed forces, etc
- cooperation; collaboration; rally

16

جَاهِزِيَّة : جاهِز : ( اسم ) : مُعَدّ ، مُسْتَعِدّ ، مُهَيّأ

Readiness
preparedness
all set ; prepared ; ready

17

تَمَتّع بِ : ( فعل ) : تَلَذّذَ , اِستَمتَعَ
مضارع : يَتَمَتَّعُ

Delight in
enjoy ; get pleasure from ; have for one's use or benefit ; have the use or benefit of ; relish ; savor ; take pleasure or satisfaction or delight in

18

يَستَحوِذ : ( فعل ) : اِسْتَحْوَذ على : اِسْتَغْرَقَ ، اِسْتَبَدّ بِـ

Absorb
; be on someone's mind ; busy ; engage ; engross ; fill completely ; fill up ; keep busy ; make busy ; occupy ; preoccupy ; take one's entire attention ; take up - carry ; dominate ; over-come

19

تَرْفِيهِيّة : ( اسم ) : ترفِيهِيّ مَنْسُوبٌ إلى التَّرْفِيه
ماضي : رَفَّهَ
مضارع : يُرَفِّهُ

Amusing
- causing laughter or smiles; enjoyable; funny and entertaining

20

مِنَصَّة : ( اسم ) : مَكانٌ لِلخَطَابَة

Dais
platform ; rostrum ; stage ; stand ; tribune

21

قاطنين : مفردها : قاطِن : ( اسم ) : ساكِن
ماضي : قَطَنَ
مضارع : يَقطُنُ

Dweller
; dwelling ; habitant ; inhabitant ; inhabiting ; living ; lodger ; lodging ; occupant ; populating ; resident ; residing

22

رِيَادَة : ( اسم ) : اِسْتِكْشاف

Exploration
; path finding ; pioneering ; reconnaissance ; reconnoitering ; scout(ing)

23

تُعِيْقُ : ( فعل ) : تُعَطِّلُ
ماضي : أعَاقَ

Arrest
bar ; block ; check ; confine ; constrain ; debar ; detain ; halt ; hamper ; hinder ; hold (back) ; hold up ; impede ; keep (back) ; obstruct ; prevent ; repress ; restrain ; retain ; shut out ; stay ; stop ; suppress ; withhold

24

مُستَنَدات : مفردها : مُسْتَنَد ( اسم ) : وثَائِق

Document
formal papers

25

ضُلُوعْ : ( اسم ) : تَدَخُل

Involvement
Role, part, hand

26

مُضَلِّلة : مُضَلِّل ( اسم ) : مُؤَدٍّ إلى الضَّلال

Deceptive
- seeming to be something but it is not in fact
- not real: deceptive
- leading to misdirection
- misleading; misdirecting
- causing to change to wrong
- causing to pervert

27

مُرتَكَزات : مفردها : مُرْتَكَز ( اسم ) : مِحْوَر
ماضي : اِرتَكَزَ
مضارع : يَرتَكِزُ

Center
; pivot

28

يُدْلِي : ( فعل ) : يُلقِي بِ قَول
ماضي : أدْلَى

Deliver a statement

29

يَنْبُس : ( فعل ) : نَبَسَ : لَفَظَ ، تَكَلَّمَ

Talk
- to say something to someone, speak
- to send out something
- force or squeeze out something under pressure
- declare ,announce ,or pass judgment
- pronounce or tell something
- utter, discuss, or address
- emit audibly or express in spoken or written sounds
- form (a sound) or utter (a word) with the voice
- to pronounce words clearly and carefully

30

سَبائك : مفردها : سَبِيكَة ( اسم ) : القِطْعَةُ المُسْتَطِيلَةُ منَ المَعْدِن

Bullion
- gold or silver in bulk or bars, before manufacture
- an oblong piece of cast metal
- mould where metal is poured or pressed or an object made in this way

31

مُقْتَضَب : ( اسم ) : مُخْتَصَر
ماضي : اِقتَضَبَ
مضارع : يَقتَضِبُ

Abridged
; brief ; concise ; condensed ; digested ; laconic ; short ; shortened ; succinct ; t

32

اِسْتِمَالَة : ( اسم ) :
جَذْب ، اِسْتِجْلاب
ماضي : اِستَمَال
مضارع : يَستَمِيلُ

Attraction
; bringing over ; conciliation ; drawing ; enlistment ; winning (over)
- converting to one's own side
- reconciling or wining the support;goodiwll or friendly feelings of

33

اِستَنْكَرَتْ : اِستَنكَرَ ( فعل ) : رَفَضَ , أدَانَ
مضارع : يَستَنكِرُ

Condemn
; Disapprove

34

إِحْراز : ( اسم ) : حُصُولٌ عَلَى
ماضي : أحرَزَ
مضارع : يُحرَزُ

Accomplishment
- successful completion or an achievement
- action of achieving or thing done successfully
- act of getting new knowledge, skills, or power, land, money, etc
- action of acquiring something
- success in reaching; thing attained, especially skill or knowledge
- getting or obtaining
- winning; profiting; obtaining; earning
- obtaining; fetching; earning; holding; gaining or understanding
- noun gerund of have
- the act of obtaining or being obtained
- acquisition or acquirement
- the process of defeating an enemy in battle or war or an opponent in a contest or an instance of this; a triumph
- noun gerund of verb to win

35

اِنْجِرَارُ : ( اسم ) : اِنسِحَابُ , تَحَرُّك

Traction

36

مُلْتَهِب : ( اسم ) : مُشْتَعِل
ماضي : اِلتَهَبَ
مضارع : يَلتَهِبُ

Ablaze
afire ; aflame ; blazing ; burning ; flaming ; in flames ; on fire

37

يَنْفَعُ : ( فعل ) : يُفِيد
ماضي : نَفَعَ

Be advantage
be advantageous ; be avail ; be beneficial ; be benefit ; be help ; be helpful ; be of advantage ; be of help ; be of profit ; be of use ; be out service ; be profit ; be profitable ; be serve ; be useful

38

رَشْاشَات : مفردها : رَشَّاش ( اسم ) : نَوع من البنادق
ماضي : رَشَّ
مضارع : يَرُشُّ

Guns
machine gun

39

مُسْتَودَعَاتْ الأَسْلِحَة

Armories
gun houses

40

يَقْتَرِن : ( فعل ) : يَتَّصِل , يَرتَبِط
ماضي : اِقتَرَنَ

Be associate (with)
; be associated (with) ; be connected (with) ; be couple ; be coupled (with) ; be form a pair ; be join ; be joined (with) ; be linked (with) ; be pair ; be unite (with) ; be united (with)

41

فَسْخ : ( اسم ) : شَقّ
ماضي : فَسَخَ
مضارع : يَفَخُ

Cassation
defeasance
split(ting) ; tear(ing)

42

مُتْعَة ( اسم ) : لَذّة

Delectation
delight ; enjoyment ; gratification ; pleasure ; treat
- delectation
- enjoyment: entertainment
- feelings of great pleasure ,joy: cause or source of great pleasure
- pleasure and satisfaction
- an event or circumstance that gives great pleasure .

43

غُرَمَاء : مفردها :غَرِيْم : ( اسم ) : خَصْم

Adversary
antagonist ; opponent ; rival

44

رَسْو : ( اسم ) : رُسُوخ
ماضي : رَسَا
مضارع : يَرسِي

Stability
steadiness
- firmness
- steadiness, fixedness, solidness
- steadiness, firmness
- taking root, or deep-rootedness
- stability; steadiness; steadfastness
- stabilization or firmness

45

تَذَمُّره : تَذَمُّر : ( اسم ) اِحْتِداد ، سُخْط
ماضي : تَذَمَّرَ
مضارع : يَتَذَمَّرُ

Complaining
- saying that one is not satisfied, that something is wrong, that one is suffering
- act of complaining or statement of, grounds for, dissatisfaction
- complain; grumble
- complaint; grumbling
- complaining; expressing unsatissfaction all the time

46

بَوَارِجَ حَرْبِيَّة

Battle Ships

47

اِسْتِقْدام : اِسْتَقْدَمَ ( فعل ) : اِسْتَدْعَى ، اِسْتَحْضَرَ
مضارع : يَستَقْدِمُ

Bringing in
To ask strongly and publicly
- to summon or send for someone
- bring into being
- convert to one's own side
- to ask or order someone to come by shout , phone ,etc ll
- to summon or send for
- ask for something firmly

48

تَشَيّع ( فعل ) : تَحَزّبَ

adhere to ; advocate ; be in favor of ; champion ; follow ; patronize ; side with ; sponsor ; support ; take sides with

49

كبش الفداء

Scapegoat

50

تَشَيّع ) : اسم ) : تَحَزُّب , تَحَيُّز
ماضي : تَشَيَّعَ
مضارع : يَتَشَيَّعُ

Adherence (to) ; advocacy ; avocation ; bias ; factionalism ; favoritism ; following ; one-sidedness ; partiality ; partisanship ; patronage ; prejudice ; sectarianism ; siding (with) ; support ; taking sides (with)

51

يتَنَكّر: ( فعل ) : تَقَنّعَ ، تَخَفّى
ماضي : تَنَكَّرَ

Be disguised
; be in disguise ; conceal oneself ; disguise oneself ; hide (oneself) ; keep oneself out of sight ; mask ; masquerade

52

مُنْفَرِدة : مُنفَرد ( اسم ) : وَحِيد
ماضي : اِنفَرَدَ
مضارع : يَنفَرِدُ

Alone
- without any companions or the help of other people or things
- completely alone
- one and only; single
- alone; individual; single

53

يُوغِلُ : ( فعل ) : يَدخُل , يَتخَلَلُ , يَتَوَغَّلُ
ماضي : تَوغَلَ

Delve into
; go deeply into ; penetrate deeply into ; study thoroughly

54

مُنَاوِئة : ( اسم ) : مُعَادٍ ، مُقَاوِم ، خَصْم
ماضي : نَاوَئ
مضارع : يُنَاوِئُ

Adversary ; against ; antagonist ; anti- ; enemy ; foe ; hostile (to) ; opponent ; opposed (to) ; oppose ; resister ; resisting

55

يَسْتَرْضِي

Appeases
; Placates; Propitiates

56

اِلْتِقاء : ( اسم ) : اِجْتِماع
ماضي : اِلتَقَى
مضارع : يَلتَقِي

Coming together
concurrence ; conjunction ; meeting
- association
- group of people joined together for a common purpose; organization; confederation; society; league; union; corporation; federation; company; club
- (meeting for) discussion, exchange of views
- gathering of people; body of people(taking part in a religious worship)
- meeting; series of meetings, of representatives(of societies,etc)for discussion
- (of a meeting,council,etc) coming together
- conference of members of a society, political party, etc; conference of persons in business, commerce, etc
- congregation; assemblage; meeting; clustering
- a meeting or discussion

57

مُؤْتَلفة : مُؤْتَلِف ( اسم ) : مُتَآلِف ’ مُتَطَابِق
ماضي : اِئتَلَفَ
مضارع : يَأتَلِفُ

Close
coalescent ; combined ; familiar ; friendly ; harmonic ; harmonious ; in accord ; in agreement ; in harmony ; in tune ; intimate ; joint ; symphonic ; symphonious ; united
- combined (in a coalition)
- done,made,or achieved by several people working together or possessing together

58

مُنْزَعِجة : مُنزَعِجْ ( اسم ) :
مُتَضَايِق
ماضي : اِنزَعَجَ
مضارع : يَنزَعِجُ

Annoyed
disturbed ; ill at ease ; irritated ; troubled ; uncomfortable ; uneasy ; unquiet ; upset ; vexed

59

مُنَاوِئ : ( اسم ) : مُعَادٍ ، مُقَاوِم ، خَصْم
ماضي : نَاوَئَ
مضارع : يُنَاوِئُ

Adversary
against ; antagonist ; anti- ; enemy ; foe ; hostile (to) ; opponent ; opposed (to) ; oppose ; resister ; resisting

60

ذَرِيعة : ( اسم ) : حُجّة

Expedient
instrument ; instrumentality ; means ; medium ; resource

61

أرصدة : مفردها : رَصِيدْ: ( اسم ) : المُودَعُ منَ الأَمْوالِ في المَصْرف

Balance
funds ; outstanding account
- arrangement made with a bank allowing credit for financial or commercial transactions

62

قَلَّصَت : قَلَّصَ : ( فعل ) : اِنْكَمَشَ , قَلَّلَ
مضارع : يُقَلِّصُ

Constrict
- to make or become tight or smaller; cause (a vein, etc) to become tight
- make or become smaller or retreat
shrink

63

مِنَصَّة : ( اسم ) : مَكانٌ لِلخَطَابَة

Dais
; platform ; rostrum ; stage ; stand ; tribune

64

كَثَب : ( اسم ) : قُرْب

Closeness
; nearness ; proximity ; vicinity

65

مُتْعَة : ( اسم ) : لَذّة

Delectation
; delight ; enjoyment ; gratification ; pleasure ; treat
- delectation
- enjoyment: entertainment
- feelings of great pleasure ,joy: cause or source of great pleasure
- pleasure and satisfaction
- an event or circumstance that gives great pleasure .

66

تّكهّنات : مفردها : تَكَهُّن : ( اسم ) : تَوَقُّع
ماضي : تَكَهَّنَ
مضارع : يَتَكَهّنُ

Prognoses
forecast
- a calculation or estimate of something future
- noun gerund of verb (to forecast)
- noun gerund of verb (to foretell)
- saying that something will happen in advance
- prediction or foretelling
- telling what will happen
- statement that tells what will happen
- prediction; divination

67

عَلّلَ : ( فعل ) : بَرّرَ ، فَسّرَ
مضارع : يُعَلِّلُ

Account for
explain ; furnish a justifying analysis or explanation for ; give reasons for ; ground ; justify ; warrant

68

مائِل : ( اسم ) : مُنْحَرِف
ماضي : مَالَ
مضارع : يَمِيلُ

Bent
diagonal ; inclined ; oblique ; slant(ing) ; tilted ; tipped

69

هَشّ : ( اسم ) : قَصِم ، قَصِف

Breakable
brittle ; crisp ; crispy ; crumbly ; delicate ; fragile ; frail ; frangible ; friable ; tenuous

70

كَسَاد : ( اسم ) : رُكُود ، بَوَار

Depression
; dullness ; inactivity ; lull ; recession ; slack(ness) ; sluggishness ; slump ; stagnancy ; stagnation ; standstill ; unmarketability ; unassailability

71

تَعاقُدات : مفردها : تَعَاقُد : ( اسم ) : اِتِّفاق
ماضي : تَعَاقَدَ
مضارع : يَتَعَاقَدُ

Compact
- agreement between parties,contract;covenant
- contraction; making agreement; something contracted or shortened
- a formally concluded and ratified agreement between states .
- peace treaty; an agreement

72

تَنْقِيب : ( اسم ) : تَنْقِيبٌ عَنْ , فِي : مُبَالَغَةٌ فِي الْبَحْثِ
ماضي : نَقَّبَ
مضارع : يُنَقِّبُ

Drilling
examination ; excavating ; excavation ; exploration ; hunt ; hunt(ing) ; inspection ; investigation ; looking for ; prospecting ; prospection ; quest ; quest of ; research ; search ; search for ; search(ing) ; search(ing) for ; searching for ; seeking

73

مِراراً : ( اسم )

Constantly
continually ; frequently ; in many instances ; many a time ; many times ; often ; oftentimes ; repeatedly

74

مُضَارِبِيْن : مفردها : مُضَارِب ( اسم ) : مُضَارِب ( اقتصاد )
ماضي : ضَارَبَ
مضارع : يُضَارِبُ

Speculator
- be speculative
- be speculator
- (Stock Exchange) person who sells stock for future delivery hoping before then to buy it cheap

75

تَعاقُدات : ( مفردها ) : تَعَاقُد ( اسم ) : اِتِّفاق
ماضي : تَعَاقَدَ
مضارع : يَتَعَاقَدُ

Compact
- agreement between parties,contract;covenant
- contraction; making agreement; something contracted or shortened
- a formally concluded and ratified agreement between states .
- peace treaty; an agreement

76

آبَارْ: مفردها : بِئْر ( اسم ) : عَيْن

Cistern
; pit ; well

77

مُنْعَدِمة : مُنعَدِمْ ( اسم ) : مَفقُودْ , مَنتَهِي
ماضي : اِنعَدَمَ
مضارع : يَنعَدِمُ

Absent
nonexistent; vanished

78

مَصَافِي : مفردها : مِصْفَاة ( اسم )
ماضي : صَفَّى
مضارع : يُصّفِّي

Colanders
Refineries; Ricers; Skimmers; Strainers

79

فَوائض : مفردها : فائِض : ( اسم ) : زِيَادَة
ماضي : فَاضَ
مضارع : يَفِيضُ

Excess
overabundance ; overflow ; over plus ; superabundance ; superfluity ; surplus ; surplus age

80

مُبَاعة : مُباع ( اسم ) : بِيْع
ماضي : بِيعْ
مضارع : يُبَاعْ

Sold

81

شَهِيّة ( اسم ) : شَهْوَة

Appetency
; craving ; desire ; hankering ; hunger ; longing ; yearning

82

شَلَل : مَرَضٌ يُصِيبُ أَعْضاءَ الجِسْم

palsy
- ilness makes arms and legs shake
- illness makes arms and legs shake
- an illness attacking young children
- childern's disease caused by a lack of vitamin D resulting in softing and deformity of the bonesand enlargement of the liver and speen

83

إسْتِئْصال ( اسم ) :

ablation (by surgery) ; abscission ; deracination ; eradication ; excision ; extermination ; extirpation ; extraction ; plucking out ; pulling out ; removal ; rooting out ; rooting up ; tearing out ; uprooting

84

تَطْعِيم : تَلْقِيح

injection ; inoculation ; vaccination

85

بختونخوا

A name of place

86

جُرْعَة : شَرْبَةٌ واحِدَة

dosage
- the amount of medicine that you should take in one time
- a measured amount of a medicine
- mouthful, especially of something liquid
- an amount of food or drink that you put in your mouth at one time
- dose or dosage
- dosage or gulp
- soup or broth
- dosage, swift, or the act of swallowing
- a small amount of of an alcoholic drink .

87

لقاحات

Vaccines

88

بَرْهَن : أثْبَتَ

attest to ; be evidence of ; bear witness to ; demonstrate ; establish ; evidence ; prove ; show ; substantiate ; testify ; verify

89

تصيّد

hunt; fish; trap ; Trolling

90

رامِيَة

go to ; head for ; proceed to ; seek ; take to

91

مُوَاكَبَة ( اسم ) : مُرَافَقَة ، مُصَاحَبَة

accompaniment ; accompanying ; convoy(ing) ; escort(ing)

92

طَفْرَة : اِزْدِهار

boom ; heyday ; prosperity

93

مُطّرِد : مُنْتَظِم ، مُتَوَاصِل

constant ; continual ; continued ; equable ; even ; incessant ; invariable ; persistent ; regular ; steady ; unbroken. continuous ; uniform ; uninterrupted ; unremitting

94

مُنَاقَصَة : طَرْحُ مَشْرُوعٍ أَمامَ مُسْتَثْمِرِينَ

bid, tender

95

تصيّد

hunt; fish; trap ; Trolling

96

إسْتِفْتَاء : طَلَبُ الفَتْوىَ

plebiscite ; referendum - canvass or question in a poll ; poll ; survey

97

الدهس

Squash

98

نُقْطَة : مَوْقِع ، ، مَكَان

fleck
- a small patch of colour or light
- part of a surface or body or space with or without definite boundaries or characteristics features
- a place where an activity is or has been conducted
- the act or an instance of smearing
- fleck, spot or dapple
- spot; stain, patch
- stain; blot; speckle
- stain,spot, blotch

99

اِنْحِسَار : تَرَاجُع

abatement
- decrease; diminution; reduction
- moving backwards away from something
- moving backwards away from something; stopping taking part in something or supporting it
- moving to the back
- a gradual decrease in the quality,quantity,or importance of something
- the state of deteriorating and declining
- retreating , moving backward
- act of recanting
- movement back from a good previous position
- final, terminal, last
- return to an ealier or lees advanced form or state
- the act of regessing or being regressed
- retracting or instance of this
- act or instance of retreating
- the act of withdrawing; moving back,or retreating
- a sharp or sudden decline especially in trade
- the process of waning

100

رُبُوع : مَحَلَّة ، مِنْطَقَة

quarter
- a part of a town, especially as occupied by a particular class or group; the direction, district or source of supply, etc
- the amount of space that a flat surface covers, or particular part of a country, town, house, office, garden, or particular subject
- land of a person's birth or citizinship, area of land, or rural area
- a part of a country;part of a country or a town marked out for a special purpose
- particular area or position in space
- part of a surface or body or space with or without definite boundaries or characteristics features
- land of a particular type that is owned or controlled by a particular government, ruler or military force.