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Flashcards in Abdomen 1 Deck (69):
1

What are the greater and lesser sacs of the abdominal cavity? How do they communicate with one another?

subdivisions of abdominal cavity

- communicate via Epiploic Foramen (of Winslow)

2

What is the blood supply of the:
1. Foregut
2. Midgut
3. Hindgut

1. Foregut - Celiac Trunk (T12)

2. Midgut - Superior mesenteric Artery (L1)

3. Hindgut - Inferior Mesenteric Artery (L3)

3

What is the largest gland in the human body?

LIVER

4

What is the lymphoid organ related to hematopoiesis?

Spleen

5

A  large tumor mass impinges on the splenic artery and its branches as the artery passes out from below the  greater  curvature of  the  stomach.  Branches  of which  of  the  following arteries  would  most likely be affected by the pressure on the splenic artery?

A) Left gastric
B) Left gastroepiploic (gastro-omental)
C) Right gastric
D) Right gastroepiploic
E) Gastroduodenal

B) Gastro-epiploic (gastro-omental)

6

A 55-year-old woman comes to a local hospital with abdominal tenderness and acute pain. On examination, her physician observes that an abdominal infection has spread retroperitoneal. Which of the following structures is most likely affected ?

A) Transverse colon
B) Ileum
C) Spleen
D) Stomach
E) Ascending colon

E) Ascending Colon

SAD PUCKER!!!

7

The superior pancreatico -duodenal artery which supplies the first part of the duodenum arise from which of the following arteries?

A) Right colic
B) Right Hepatic
C) Splenic
D) Gastro duodenal
E) Superior mesenteric

D) Gastroduodenal

8

Which of the following ligaments enclose the portal triad?

Gastrocolic ligament
Hepatoduodenal ligament
Hepatorenal ligament
Hepatogastric ligament
Gastrosplenic ligament

Hepatoduodenal

9

What is the peritoneum? What is it divided into?

1. Serrous membran w/ parietal and visceral layers
- serrous fluid in between

(like lungs & heart)

2. Divided into LESSER & GREATER sac

10

What sac (lesser or greater) forms the omental bursa?

LESSER Sac

- forms lesser and greater omentum

11

Once you open the peritoneum in a cadaver, are you in the greater or lesser Sac?

GREATER Sac

- accounts for most of the space of the peritoneal cavity

12

Is the lesser or greater sac inside the greater omentum?

Lesser Sac

- behind the stomach

13

The lesser sac is a closed cavity in females. True or False.

FALSE

- open cavity for fallopian tube to open into peritoneal cavity

14

Where is the ventral mesentery found? What is suspended by the dorsal mesentery?

Ventral mesentery only at UMBILICUS

- Dorsal mesentary suspends the GUT

15

The ventral mesentery becomes what ligament?

Falciform Ligament of the Liver

16

What are the names of the peritoneal folds in the following structures:

1. Stomach
2. Small Intestine
3. Large Intestine
4. Organ as a liver or spleen

1. Stomach -->Greater & lesser Omentum

2. Small Intestine --> Mesentery

3. Large Intestine --> Meso-colon

4. Organ as a liver or spleen --> LIGAMENT
(falciform in liver)

17

What organs lie posterior to the visceral peritoneum (aka RETROPERITONEALLY)?

SAD PUCKER

Suprarenal Glands
Aorta
Duodenum ( 2nd & 3rd)
Pancreas
Ureter
Colon (Ascending & Descending)
Kidney
Esophogus
Rectum

18

What is the nerve supply to:

1. Parietal Peritoneum
2. Visceral Peritoneum

Does the visceral peritoneum feel pain?

1. Somatic Nerves

2. Autonomic


NO!

(visceral peritoneum doesn't have somatic innervation --> only sensitive to stretch, tension, & ischemia)

19

The three arteries of the foregut, midgut, and hindgut are branches off of what?

Abdominal Aorta

- anterior surface
-all anastomose w/ each other

20

The following organs are a part of the foregut, midgut, or hindgut?

1. Stomach
2. Liver
3. Gallbladder
4. Pancreas
5. Spleen
6. 1st half of duodenum

FOREGUT

21

The following organs are a part of the foregut, midgut, or hindgut?

1. Left 1/3 of transverse colon
2. Descending Colon
3. Sigmoid Colon
4. Rectum

Hindgut

22

What are the 6 structures in the midgut?

1. 2nd half of duodenum
2. Jejunum
3. Ileum
4. Cecum
5. Ascending Colon
6. 2/3 of transverse colon

23

Which organs are only partially covered by peritoneum?

SAD PUCKER

Suprarenal
Aorta
Duodenum (2nd & 3rd part)
Pancreas
Ureter
Colon (ascending/descending)
Kidney
Esophogus
Rectum

24

The stomach loves 2's

1. 2 borders
2. 2 sacs
3. 2 surfaces
4. 2 ends

1. Greater & Lesser
2. Greater & Lesser
3. Anterior & Posterior
4. Cardiac & Pyloric

25

The stomach is divided into what 4 parts?

1. Cardiac
2. Fundus
3. Body
4. Pylorus

26

What allow the stomach to dilate considerably?

the mucosa = RUGAE

27

What vessel supplies the stomach?

Celiac Trunk

28

The lesser or greater momentum forms the Ventral mesentery?

LESSER

- dorsal = GREATER omentum

29

What are the two ligaments of the stomach in the lesser omentum?

1. Hepatogastric (connects liver to stomach)

2. Hepatoduodenum (connects liver to duodenum)

30

What are the 4 ligaments of the Greater momentum (dorsal mesentery)?

1. Gastrosplenic
2. Gastrophrenic
3. Gastrocolic
4. Lienorenal/ Splenorenal (spleen & kidney)

31

What functions as the policemen of the abdomen? WHY?

GREATER OMENTUM

- prevents the spread of infection

32

The liver is a development of foregut, midgut, or hindgut?

FOREGUT

33

What is the blood supply to the liver?

Hepatic Artery of the Celiac Trunk (25%) & Portal Vein (75%)

34

What is the only area of the liver not covered by peritoneum called?

BARE area

- at the Coronary Ligaments

35

What are the 5 ligaments (peritoneal folds) of the liver?

(4 to the diaphragm)
Right Coronary
Left Coronary
Right Triangular
Left Triangular

Falciform (1 to the abdominal wall)

36

When the stomach undergoes a 90 degree rotation, which Vagus Nerve (left or Right) is located behind the stomach?

Right Vagus is BEHIND

(in Vagus it is RIGHT to take from BEHIND)

- LEFT VAGUS in FRONT & RIGHT vagus BEHIND

37

What is the order of the following 3 Hepatic Structures found in the LESSER omentum?

1. Hepatic Portal Vein
2. Hepatic Artery
3. Hepatic Duct

Portal vein Posterior
Hepatic duct Right
Hepatic artery Left

38

Where is the visceral surface of the liver located?

INFERIOR

39

What are the 5 FISSURES of the liver? (forming the H)

1. Ligamentum Venosum (left)
2. Ligamentum Teres (Round ligament) (left & lower)
3. Porta Hepatis
4. Gallbladder Fossa (right & lower)
5. Inferior Vena Cava (right & higher)

40

What structure lies between the quadrate & caudate lobes?

Portus Hepatis

(VAD - posterior to anterior)

41

In the anatomical position, is the caudate & quadrate in the left or right robe?

RIGHT lobe

42

What forms the line for the FUNCTIONAL position? What is this division based on?

1. Superior Vena Cava & Gallbladder Fossa

- based on BLOOD SUPPLY

43

What is the blood supply to the liver?

Hepatic Proper & Portal Vein

(caudate & quadrate supplied by LEFT Hepatic Artery)

44

What is the path of venous drainage to the IVC?

Blood sinusoids --> Central Veins --> Hepatic Veins --> Inferior Vena Cava

45

Where is the sphincter of ODDI found?

At the lower end of bile duct, pancreatic duct & ampulla

46

What are the 3 parts of the gallbladder?

1. Fundus
2. Body
3. Neck

47

At what meeting point is the FUNDUS of the liver found at?

right Linea Semilunaris & 9th costal cartilage

48

What is a common site of gall bladder stones in the liver?

Hartmann's Pouch

49

The celiac trunk is found at what thoracic level?

T12

50

What artery supplies the esophagus & stomach? Where does it anastomose?

Left gastric

- anastomoses with Right gastric at the LESSER curvature of stomach

51

Where does the SPLENIC artery end?

Lienorenal Ligament (splenorenal)

52

Where do the left & right gastro-omental (gastroepiploic) arteries anastomose with one another?

Great Curvature of the stomach

53

What are the two surfaces of the spleen?

1. Diaphragmatic (separate from left lung & 9,10,11 ribs)

2. Visceral (hilum)

54

What artery supplies the spleen?

SPLENIC of the celiac trunk

55

What two vessels supply a DOUBLE blood influx to the liver?

Hepatic artery (25% )
Portal vein (75%)

- both 50% oxygen

56

If there is trauma & a rib is broken, which organ will most likely be affected? What will it cause?

spleen

- will cause SEVERE bleeding
-hemopoetic organ (makes RBC) = severe bleeding***** need splenectomy

57

What is the ligament that connects the liver to the abdominal wall?

Falciform Ligament

58

What is the name of the ligament that is the obliterated umbilical vein?

Ligamentum Teres

59

Which lobe has a small "head" like structure that appears in the hilum of the liver?

Caudate Lobe

60

What vein does the Superior Mesenteric VEIN meet at the pancreas? (behind the stomach)

SPLENIC vein

61

What part of the stomach has the sphincter/valve like action?

Pylorus

62

Which organ is "gland" like?

PANCREAS

63

Which part of the duodenum is intraperitoneal?

FIRST PART ONLY*

64

The ______ comes off of the Cecum

APPENDIX

65

What is the lowest part of the gall bladder called?

FUNDUS

66

What structure connects the greater & lesser sacs?

EPIPLOIC FORAMEN

67

Where does the main pancreatic duct & common bile duct drain? (which part)

Ampulla of Vater

* 2nd part of DUODENUM

68

Once we open the abdomen we are in the ______ sac.

GREATER SAC

69

The spleen is found posteriorly at what ribs?

9,10,11