Flashcards in Embryology of the heart Deck (45):
The three layers of heart cells: endocardium, myocardium, and epicardium) are all derived from_______
The primordial heart begins to beat at week______
What do the 5 chambers contribute to?
1. Truncus Arteriosus
2. Bulbus Cordis
3. Primitive Ventricle
4. Primitive Atrium
5. Sinus Venosus
1. Pulmonary Trunk & aorta
2. Smooth part of Right and Left Ventricles
3. Rough* part of right and left ventricle
4. right and left auricles
5. coronary sinus & part of Right atrium
What contributes to the continuity of aorta with left ventricle & the pulmonary trunk with the right ventricle?
What forms the 3rd, 4th, and 6th aortic arches?
3rd --> Common Carotid & part of internal carotid
4th-->arch of AORTA (from left c.carotid to left subclavian) + right SUBCLAVIAN
6th--> left = PULMONARY artery & DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS
right = right pulmonary artery
Which arctic arch completely disappears?
5th (1st and 2nd almost completely disappear as well)
Where is fetal blood oxygenated?
What are 2 of the most common congenital anomalies in the heart?
1. Patent oval foramen - connect R& L atrium
2. Patent Ductus Arteriosus - conenct Pulmonary Artery to Descending Aorta
(both fail to close)
What disease in the mother is a likely cause of PDA (Patent Ductus Arterioles)?
Rubella infection of the mother
1. Atrial Septal Defects (ASD)
2. Ventricular Septal Defects (VSD)?
1. ASD = Patent Foramen Ovale
2. VSD = in membranous part, most COMMON Congenital HEART DEFECT
What is the term for cyanotic heart disease?
Transposition of great vessels
What is Fallot's Tetralogy? What are the 4 features?
**Abnormal division of Truncus Arteriosus (pulmonary trunk & aorta)
- most common cyanotic (blue baby) heart lesion
1. Overriding Aorta
2. Pulmonary Stenosis
4. Hypertrophy of RIGHT VENTRICLE
How does one detect VSD?
heart auscultations (heart murmur will be found)
What is an abnormal position of the heart classified as?
- right sided heart*
From what does the uterus and uterine tubes develop from in the female?
What about the male?
1. Paramesonephric Ducts
2. Mesonephric Ducts (stimulated by the release of testosterone by the INTERSTITIAL CELLS)
What do stroll cells produce?
Mullerian Inhibiting Substance
Which pharyngeal ARCH disappears?
What are the components of the brachial apparatus?
Arches= Mesoderm LINING INSIDE
What do the following arches develop into?
4 & 6th
1s = Muscles of Mastication (V3)
2nd = Facial Expression (7)
3rd = Stylopharyngeus (9)
4th = Cricothyroid (External L.)
6th = Muscles of the LARYNX (recurrent L.)
What are do the POUCHES develop into
1, 2,3, 4
Ear, Tonsil, BOTTOM to TOP
Ear 1st = middle ear cavity, auditory eustachian tube
Tonsils 2nd = Palatine Tonsils, Tonsillar Fossa
Bottom 3rd = Inferior Parathyroid Gland, Thymus
Top 4th = SUPERIOR THYROID
What is the development of the first 4 CLEFTS?
1st cleft : external auditory meatus
2nd, 3rd and 4th clefts are obliterated by overgrowth of the 2nd arch and 4th arch toward each other forming a cervical sinus – if persists forms the branchial cyst or fistula
Which type of growth is found at the SCM?
What is the cyst by the midline of the neck?
Thyroglossal Duct Cyst
What are the following derivatives of the Aortic Arches
5th - left & right side
6th - left & right side
1,2, and 5 are obliterated**
3rd = Common Carotid + 1st part of internal carotid
4th = Left - Arch of the Aorta
Right = Right Subclavian
Left = Ductus Arteriosus + Left Pulmonary Artery
Right = RIGHT Pulmonary A.
What does the 3rd Aortic arch develop into?
Arch #3 Common carotid arteries + part of Internal carotid. A.
What does the 4th Aortic arch develop into?
Arch #4 aortic arch on the left side,
subclavian artery on the right side
What does the 6th Aortic arch develop into
Ductus arteriosus + Left Pulmonary.
Right pulmonary artery on the right side
Heart is mesoderm, endoderm or ectoderm?
What is the smooth part of the ventricle formed from?
Smooth part of the ventricle = BULBUS CORDIS
What is the ROUGH part of the ventricle formed from?
ROUGH part = PRIMITIVE VENTRICLE
What does the SINUS VENOSUS form?
1. Right atrium
2. Coronary sinus
Atrium has SINUS VENOSUS formation of Left and Right Atrium - MAINLY THE CORONARY SINUS***
The entire length of the gut is formed by what?
How many degrees does the stomach rotate?
What is the axis of rotation for the MIDGUT and how many rotations does it make?
MIDGUT rotates 270 degrees around the Superior Mesenteric Artery
- 3 rotations
If intestinal tube does not come back inside, and loop of the intestine comes out, what is this called?
- Physiologic Hernia
What Establishes anorectal canal and urogenital sinus?
The gut tube is:
What about the trigone?
1. Gut tube = Endoderm
2. Trigone = Mesoderm
3. Bladder = endoderm
What gives us the 1st kidney by the cervical vertebrae?
what gives us the ureteric bud & mesonephric duct?
What gives us the kidney?
Where is the kidney at the time of development?
What is the term for two kidneys that unite together?
Where does the ureteris bud open into?
URETERIC BUD opens at the UROGENITAL SINUS
- (part of the Cloaca, which is endoderm)
What do the 3 divisions of the UG sinus develop into?