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Flashcards in Embryology of the heart Deck (45):
1

The three layers of heart cells: endocardium, myocardium, and epicardium) are all derived from_______

Splanchninc Mesodern

2

The primordial heart begins to beat at week______

4

3

What do the 5 chambers contribute to?
1. Truncus Arteriosus
2. Bulbus Cordis
3. Primitive Ventricle
4. Primitive Atrium
5. Sinus Venosus

1. Pulmonary Trunk & aorta
2. Smooth part of Right and Left Ventricles
3. Rough* part of right and left ventricle
4. right and left auricles
5. coronary sinus & part of Right atrium

4

What contributes to the continuity of aorta with left ventricle & the pulmonary trunk with the right ventricle?

Aorticopulmonary Septum

5

What forms the 3rd, 4th, and 6th aortic arches?

3rd --> Common Carotid & part of internal carotid

4th-->arch of AORTA (from left c.carotid to left subclavian) + right SUBCLAVIAN

6th--> left = PULMONARY artery & DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS

right = right pulmonary artery

6

Which arctic arch completely disappears?

5th (1st and 2nd almost completely disappear as well)

7

Where is fetal blood oxygenated?

Placenta

8

What are 2 of the most common congenital anomalies in the heart?

1. Patent oval foramen - connect R& L atrium

2. Patent Ductus Arteriosus - conenct Pulmonary Artery to Descending Aorta

(both fail to close)

9

What disease in the mother is a likely cause of PDA (Patent Ductus Arterioles)?

Rubella infection of the mother

10

What is:
1. Atrial Septal Defects (ASD)
2. Ventricular Septal Defects (VSD)?

1. ASD = Patent Foramen Ovale

2. VSD = in membranous part, most COMMON Congenital HEART DEFECT

11

What is the term for cyanotic heart disease?

Transposition of great vessels

12

What is Fallot's Tetralogy? What are the 4 features?

**Abnormal division of Truncus Arteriosus (pulmonary trunk & aorta)

- most common cyanotic (blue baby) heart lesion

4 features:
1. Overriding Aorta
2. Pulmonary Stenosis
3. VSD
4. Hypertrophy of RIGHT VENTRICLE

13

How does one detect VSD?

heart auscultations (heart murmur will be found)

14

What is an abnormal position of the heart classified as?

1. DEXTOCARDIA
- right sided heart*

15

From what does the uterus and uterine tubes develop from in the female?

What about the male?

1. Paramesonephric Ducts

2. Mesonephric Ducts (stimulated by the release of testosterone by the INTERSTITIAL CELLS)

16

What do stroll cells produce?

Mullerian Inhibiting Substance

17

Which pharyngeal ARCH disappears?

5th

18

What are the components of the brachial apparatus?

CAP
Clefts= Ectoderm
Arches= Mesoderm  LINING INSIDE
Pouches= Endoderm

19

What do the following arches develop into?

1st
2nd
3rd
4 & 6th

1s = Muscles of Mastication (V3)

2nd = Facial Expression (7)

3rd = Stylopharyngeus (9)

4th = Cricothyroid (External L.)

6th = Muscles of the LARYNX (recurrent L.)

20

What are do the POUCHES develop into
1, 2,3, 4

Ear, Tonsil, BOTTOM to TOP

Ear  1st = middle ear cavity, auditory eustachian tube

Tonsils  2nd = Palatine Tonsils, Tonsillar Fossa

Bottom 3rd = Inferior Parathyroid Gland, Thymus

TO

Top 4th = SUPERIOR THYROID

21

What is the development of the first 4 CLEFTS?

1st cleft : external auditory meatus

2nd, 3rd and 4th clefts are obliterated by overgrowth of the 2nd arch and 4th arch toward each other forming a cervical sinus – if persists forms the branchial cyst or fistula

22

Which type of growth is found at the SCM?

BRACHIAL CYST

23

What is the cyst by the midline of the neck?

Thyroglossal Duct Cyst

24

What are the following derivatives of the Aortic Arches

1st,2nd
3rd
4
5th - left & right side
6th - left & right side

1,2, and 5 are obliterated**

3rd = Common Carotid + 1st part of internal carotid

4th = Left - Arch of the Aorta
Right = Right Subclavian

6th

Left = Ductus Arteriosus + Left Pulmonary Artery

Right = RIGHT Pulmonary A.

25

What does the 3rd Aortic arch develop into?

Arch #3 Common carotid arteries + part of Internal carotid. A.

26

What does the 4th Aortic arch develop into?



Arch #4 aortic arch on the left side,
subclavian artery on the right side


27

What does the 6th Aortic arch develop into

Arch #6
Ductus arteriosus + Left Pulmonary.
Right pulmonary artery on the right side

28

Heart is mesoderm, endoderm or ectoderm?

MESODERM

29

What is the smooth part of the ventricle formed from?

Smooth part of the ventricle = BULBUS CORDIS


30

What is the ROUGH part of the ventricle formed from?



ROUGH part = PRIMITIVE VENTRICLE

31

What does the SINUS VENOSUS form?

1. Right atrium

2. Coronary sinus

Atrium has SINUS VENOSUS  formation of Left and Right Atrium - MAINLY THE CORONARY SINUS***

32

The entire length of the gut is formed by what?

DORSAL MESENTARY

33

How many degrees does the stomach rotate?

90

34

What is the axis of rotation for the MIDGUT and how many rotations does it make?

MIDGUT rotates 270 degrees around the Superior Mesenteric Artery

- 3 rotations

35

If intestinal tube does not come back inside, and loop of the intestine comes out, what is this called?

Omphalocele

- Physiologic Hernia

36

What Establishes anorectal canal and urogenital sinus?

CLOACA

37

The gut tube is:
mesoderm
endoderm
or ectoderm?

What about the trigone?
The bladder?

1. Gut tube = Endoderm
2. Trigone = Mesoderm
3. Bladder = endoderm

38

What gives us the 1st kidney by the cervical vertebrae?

1. Pronephros

39

what gives us the ureteric bud & mesonephric duct?

MESONEPHRIS

40

What gives us the kidney?

Metonephris

1= pronephros
2=mesonephros
3=metonephros

41

Where is the kidney at the time of development?

PELVIS

42

What is the term for two kidneys that unite together?

HORSESHOE KIDNEY

43

Where does the ureteris bud open into?

URETERIC BUD  opens at the UROGENITAL SINUS

- (part of the Cloaca, which is endoderm)

44

What do the 3 divisions of the UG sinus develop into?
1. Phallic
2. Vesical
3. Pelvic

1. Clitoris/penis
2. Bladder
3. URETHRA

45

What two structures form the urinary bladder?

1. Urogenital Sinus
2. Mesoderm