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SHB - Exam 2 > Larynx > Flashcards

Flashcards in Larynx Deck (47):
1

What are the three single cartilages in the larynx?

1. Thyroid Cartilage
2. Cricoid Cartilage
3. Epiglottis

2

What are the three paired cartilages in the larynx?

1. Arytenoid
2. Corniculate
3. Cuneiform

3

What 3 muscles INSERT onto the posterior border of the Thyroid Cartilage?

1. Stylopharyngeus
2. Palatopharyngeus
3. Salpinopharyngeus

4

What 3 muscles ATTACH to the oblique line of the Thyrohyoid?

1. Sternothyroid
2. Thyrohyoid
3. part of Inferior Pharyngeal Constrictor

5

What is the name of the joint that attaches the cricoid and the thyroid?

Cricothyroid Joint

6

What are the names of the folds behind the epiglottis and the "fossa" in between?

Median and Lateral Glossoepiglottic Folds

- Vallecullae in between

7

What forms the laryngeal inlet?

The Aryepiglottic fold with the epiglottis and artynoids*

8

What is the cricoarytenoid joint?

Arytenoid and Cricoid

9

What are the names of the two processes of the Artynoid?

Muscular & Vocal

10

What is pierced by the Internal Laryngeal N. and the Superior Laryngeal Artery?

Thyrohyoid Membrane (extrinsic)

11

What is the extrinsic ligament of the larynx?

Crico-tracheal Ligament

12

What is the name of the membrane that stretches between the Epiglottis and the Arytenoids?

QUADRANGULAR MEMBRANE

(intrinsic)

13

What is the false vocal fold? True vocal fold?

false = Vestibular fold
true = Vocal fold

14

To what structures does the Vestibular Ligament attach?

thryoid to Arytenoid

15

What structure is formed by the upper free border of the Crico-thyroid ligament?

Vocal FOld!!

16

What is the Rima Glottis?

Space between the vocal fold

17

Where is the piriform fossa? What nerve can be injured upon removal of a foreign body from this area?

Lateral sides of the Aryepiglottic Fold

- can damage the INTERNAL LARYNGEAL N.
- lose sensation to upper 1/2 of larynx

18

What are the two common areas that foreign bodies can be stuck?

1. PIRIFORM Fossa
2. Valleculae

19

What is the function of the larynx? What vertebrae is it found in between?

The larynx serves as valve to guard the air passages and maintain a patent airway especially during swallowing.

The phonation mechanism.

* between C3-C6

20

What is the reason men and women have different pitch?

Men have a smaller Thyroid Angle (90) vs females (120)

- men have lower pitch & longer vocal chords because of this

21

What protests the larynx?

Epiglottis

22

What are the two joints of the cricoid?

Cricothyroid joints (w/ inferior horn of Thyroid)
Cricoarytenoid joints (Arytenoid sits on top)

23

Where do the vocal cords attach?

Vocal chord attach from:
1. vocal process of arytenoid to
2. angle of thyroid cartilage

24

What fold contains the cuneiform and corniculate?

Aryepiglottic Fold

25

What is the lower free edge of the QUADrangular membrane called?

Vestibular Fold

26

The Vocal Fold is avascular. True or False?

TRUE

27

List the Action and Innervation of the muscles of the larynx:
1- Cricothyroid
2- Posterior Cricoarytenoid (tagged*)
3- Lateral Cricoarytenoid.
4- Transverse Arytenoid.
5- Oblique Arytenoid.
6- Thyro-arytenoid and Vocalis

1. Crycothyroid - TENSES vocal ligament
N: External Laryngeal N. of Superior Laryngeal of Vagus

2- Posterior Cricoarytenoid - only ABDUCTOR (of vocal folds)
3- Lateral Cricoarytenoid - ADDUCTOR
4- Transverse Arytenoid - ADDUCTOR
5- Oblique Arytenoid - ADDUCTOR
6- Thyro-arytenoid and Vocalis - RELAXOR of vocal ligament

ALL INNERVATED BY RECURRENT LARYNGEAL* (or inferior laryngeal)

28

What muscle developed from the 4th pharyngeal arch?

Cricothyroid

- the rest are 6th pharyngeal arch & innervated by recurrent laryngeal (inferior laryngeal)

29

What muscle is the only opener of Rima Glottis? What if this muscle is not functioning?

Posterior Crico-Arytenoid

* ABDucts the vocal folds
PATIENT WILL DIE IF CANT OPEN VOCAL FOLDS

30

What is the sensory innervation and blood supply of the upper larynx (ABOVE vocal folds)?

Superior Laryngeal Artery (of Superior Thyroid of External Carotid)

+ Internal Laryngeal Nerve

(both penetrate the Thyrohyoid membrane)

31

What is the sensory innervation and blood supply of the lower larynx (BELOW vocal folds)?

Inferior Laryngeal Artery ( of Inferior Thyroid of Thyrocervical Trunk)

+
Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve of Vagus

32

During a thyroidectomy which nerves need to be taken care of?

Recurrent laryngeal N. & Internal Laryngeal

33

What side of the recurrent laryngeal nerve recurs around the aorta? The subclavian?

Left = AORTA

Right = Subclavian Artery

34

What nerve can be injured when removing a foreign body from the Piriform Fossa?

Internal Laryngeal Nerve **

of Superior Laryngeal of Vagus

35

A 27- year-old woman with a goiter comes to the hospital for surgical treatment. The surgeon must ligate the superior laryngeal artery before surgically resecting the goiter, so care must be taken to avoid injury to which of the following nerves ?
A- External laryngeal nerve.
B- Internal laryngeal nerve.
C- Superior laryngeal nerve.
D- Vagus nerve.
E- Hypoglossal nerve.

B - Internal Laryngeal

36

What is goiter?

GOITER = enlargement of thyroid gland

37

A young singer visits her physician and complains of vocal difficulties. During quiet breathing her vocal cords are adducted. She is unable to abduct the vocal cords. Which of the following muscles is most likely paralyzed?
A-Vocalis muscle.
B-Crico-thyroid muscle.
C-Posterior Crico-arytenoid muscle.
D-Lateral Crico-arytenoid muscle.
E-Transverse Arytenoid muscle.

C - Posterior Crico-Arytenoid

38

Which of the following is the primary tensor of the vocal cords?

A- Vocalis.
B- Posterior cricoarytenoid.
C- Transverse cricoarytenoid.
D- Cricothyroid
E- Thryoarytenoid

D- Cricothyroid

39

The Cricothyroid muscle is associated with which branchial arch ?

A- First.
B- Second.
C- Fourth
D-Third.
E- Sixth.

C - Fourth

40

What muscle is found by Torus Tuberius?

Salpingopharyngeus (by Eustachian tube)

41

If the Rima glottis cannot open, which nerve is non-functioning?

Recurrent Laryngeal

(innervates Posterior Crico-arytenoid)

42

What is a cricothyroidectomy?

Opening of the infraglottic area

43

How many constrictors are there?

3

44

What innervates the cricothyroid?

External Laryngeal

45

The Lingual artery is deep to what muscle?

Hyoglossus

46

What connects all three constrictors?

Raphe

47

The retropharyngeal space is:

1. anterior to pre-vertebral fascia
2. Posterior to buccopharyngeal space
3. Continuous with the mediastinum