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Flashcards in Leg Deck (70):
1

What is the order of the tendons around the medial malleolus? Which is most anterior? Which malleolus do they wrap around?

Tom Dick And Nervous Harry

- wrap around the MEDIAL Malleolus

1. Tibialis Posterior (most anterior tendon)
2. Flexor Digitorum Longus
3. Posterior Tibial A.
4. Tibial N.
5. Flexor Hallucis Longus

2

What muscles make up the Tendocalcaneal/Achilles Tendon?

1. Soleus (deepest)
2. Plantaris (on soleus)
3. Gastrocnemius (superficial)

3

Where does the Popliteal Muscle originate and attach to? What is its main function?

1. Lateral Epicondyle
2. Fibula

* UNLOCK the knee + Lateral rotator

4

What muscle originates from the tendon of Extensor Digitorum Lungus? What is its innervation?

Peroneus Tertius

- innervated by Deep Fibular N.

5

What 2 muscles are found by the LATERAL malleolus?

1. Fibularis Longus
2. Fibularis Brevis

- EVERT the foot
- innervated by Superficial Fibular N.

6

Which tendon crosses the Extensor Digitorum longs to get to the MEDIAL side of the foot?

Extensor Hallucis Longus

7

What is the function of Tibialis Posterior? It is found beneath what muscle?

- Plantar Flex & INVERT the foot

_ beneath FLEXOR DIGITORUM LONGUS

8

Which nerve splits into the medial & lateral plantar nerves?

Tibial N.

9

What nerves make up the SURAL nerve? Where does it provide cutaneous sensation?

Medial Sural Cutaneous ( Tibial N.)
Lateral Sural Cutaneous (common peroneal N.)

- sensation to the OUTSIDE of the foot

10

The short saphenous vein drains into what vein? The GREAT Saphenous Vein?

Popliteal Vein

- Femoral Vein

11

What are the boundaries of the Adductor Canal? What is found inside the canal?

1. Vastus Medialis
2. Adductor Longus
3. covered by SARTORIAL

- transmits
Saphenous Nerve (off of femoral)
Femoral A.
Femoral V. (vein is more medial)

12

What structure is deepest in the POPLITEAL fossa? What are the boundaries of the fossa?

Popliteal A.

1. Semimembranosus
2. Biceps Femoris
3. Medial & Lateral Heads of the Gastrocnemius

13

What is the one branch of the Posterior Tibial A.?

Fibular A! (lateral)

14

What artery makes up the medial & lateral plantar Arteries? The Dorsalis Pedis? Which is the superficial and which is the deep arch?

1. Posterior Tibial

2. Anterior Tibial

Dorsalis Pedis = Superficial Arch

Lateral Plantar A. = DEEP Arch
- they anastomose w/ one another

15

What are the 7 tarsal bones?

1. Talus
2. Calcaneus (under talus)
3. Navicular
4. Cuboid - 4,5, metatarsals
5, 6, 7. ( 3) Cuneiform --> articulate w/ 1,2,3 metatarsals

16

Which bone has the sustenaculum tali? This bone forms the groove for what two tendons?

1. Calcaneus bone

- Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon

lateral surface: Fibularis Longus*

17

What are the 3 dermatomes of the foot from the lateral to the medial side?

S1, L5, L4 (most medial***)

18

What provides cutaneous sensation to the following parts of the leg/foot:
1. Medial Side of foot + Medial Malleolus
2. Lateral Malleolus & Sole of Foot
3. Heel
4. Sole of foot, plantar surface of 3.5 toes
5. Lateral portion of sole, plantar surface of 1.5 toes
6. Dorsum of foot
7. Dorsal Surface between 1st and 2nd toe

1. Saphenous (femoral)
2. Sural N. (Sciatic)
3. Medial Calcaneal (Tibial N.)
4. Medial Plantar N. (Tibial N.)
5. Lateral Plantar N.(Tibial N.)
6. Superficial Fibular
7. Deep Fibular

19

The Anterior Tibial A. changes its name at the ankle to become the :

Dorsalis Pedis A.

- becomes Dorsal (Superficial)Arch

20

The Posterior Tibial A. changes its name at the ankle to become the :

Medial & Lateral Plantar A.

21

What is the function of Gastrocnemius? Nerve?

Flexes the Leg/Knee & Plantar Flex the foot

- Tibial N.

* STRENGTH MUSCLE

22

What is the function of Plantaris? Nerve?

Flexes Knee & Plantar Flex the foot

- Tibial N.
-- nicknamed Freshman's Nerve

23

What is the function of Plantaris? Nerve?

Plantar flex the foot (origin = distal to knee)
- Tibial N.

24

Which muscle works to UNLOCK the knee?

POPLITEUS

- from lateral epicondyle to tibia

- flexes & medially rotates leg**

25

What is the function of Tibialis Posterior? Nerve?

- Plantar Flexion
- Adduction
- Inverts foot***
Tibial N.

26

Which digitorum muscles attaches to the distal phalanges? To the Proximal?

Flexor/Extensor Digitorum LONGUS = to DIP

Flexor/Extensor Digitorum BREVIS = split & attach to PIP

27

What nerve innervates the Extensor Digitorum Brevis & Extensor Hallucis Brevis?

DEEP FIBULAR N.

28

What tendons are bound by the Superior Retinaculum?

1. TIBIALIS Anterior
2. Extensor Hallucis Longus
3. Extensor Digitorum Longus
4. Fibularis Tertius

29

What tendons are bound by the Inferior Retinaculum?

1. Fibularis Tertius
2. Extensor Digitorum Longus

30

What tendons are bound by the Flexor Retinaculum?

1. Tibialis Psterior
2. Flexor Hallucis Longus
3. Flexor Digitorum Longus

31

What are the structures of the FIRST layer of the foot?

AbFAb

1. Abductor Hallucis - flex/abduct big toe
2. Flexor Digitorum Brevis - flex PIP joint
3. Abductor Digiti Minimi - flex/abduct small toe

32

What are the structures of the 2nd layer of the foot?

2M +2T

1. Quadratus Plantae (Lat. P.N.) - assists in FLEXIOn of toes 2-5
2. Lumbricals - flex MCP (proximal), extend DIP
-1st = Medial Plantar Nerve
2,3,4 = Lateral Plantar N.

1. Flexor Digitorum Longus
2. Flexor Hallucis Longus

33

What are the structures of the 3rd layer of the foot?

F Ad F (FAF)

1. Flexor Hallucis Brevis
- medial plantar n.

2. Adductor Hallucis - 2 heads --> adduct toe
3. Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis- Flex MCP joint of 5th digit

34

What are the structures of the 4th layer of the foot? (deepest)

2M + 2T

1. PAD - adducts digit 3-5 to midline --> SECOND toe
2. DABS - abducts digit 2-4 from midline

1. Fibularis Longus Tendon
2. Tibialis Posterior Tendon

35

Which toe forms the midline?

SECOND TOE

36

The medial calcanea branches provide sensory innervation to what part of the foot?

HEEL

37

Are there sympathetics traveling in the leg?

YES

- piloerection & sweat

38

What would result from an injury to the FEMORAL Nerve? (3) Would there be any sensory loss?

1. Anterior Thigh Wasting
2. Loss of Quadriceps muscles --> LEG DROP
3.weakness in thigh extension

SENSORY LOSS: anterior thigh & MEDIAL LEG AND FOOT

39

What would result from an injury to the Obturator Nerve? (2) Would there be any sensory loss?

1. Medial thigh wasting
2. Loss of ADDUCTORS

Sensory Loss: Upper Medial Thigh

40

What would result from an injury to the Superior Gluteal Nerve? Would there be any sensory loss?

1. TRENDELENBURG Sign!!!!
- hip drops to the side opposite the lesion

NO SENSORY LOSS

41

What would result from an injury to the Inferior Gluteal Nerve? (2) Would there be any sensory loss?

1. Buttock Wasting
2. Weakness in thigh extension

NO SENSORY LOSS

42

What would result from an injury to the Sciatic Nerve? (2) Would there be any sensory loss?

1. Wasting of all hamstrings
2. Wasting of Muscles of Leg & Foot

Sensory Loss: back of thigh & leg, lateral leg, & PLANTAR FOOT (bottom)

- Sciatic splits into tibial --> Medial & Lateral Plantar Nerves


43

What would result from an injury to the Common Fibular Nerve? (3) Would there be any sensory loss?

1. FOOT DROP
2. Loss of EVERSION
3. Loss of TOE EXTENSION

SENSORY LOSS: dorsal of foot & LATERAL LEG**


- common fibular splits into Deep & Superficial

44

What would result from an injury to the Tibial Nerve? Would there be any sensory loss?

1. Loss of toe flexion
2. Loss of Plantar Flexion
3. Loss of foot INVERSION
4. WASTING OF CALF MUSCLES

SENSORY LOSS: Sole of foot (plantar surface) &
tips of toes (medial &plantar nerves)

45

Which dermatome supplies the pinky toe?

S1!!

big toe = L4

46

What muscle is found under the Popliteal A. & Vein? Over?

1. Popliteal

2. Plantaris

47

Which muscle is the POSTURAL muscle?

SOLEUS

48

Which muscle in the posterior compartment ONLY plantar flexes the foot?

SOLEUS

- plantaris & tibialis posterior do this AND flex leg

49

Which muscle ADDUCTS & Inverts the foot?

TIbialis Posterior

50

What 3 muscles are the INVERTERS of the foot?

Inverters: (TIBIAL N.)

Flexor Digitorum Longus
Flexor Hallucis Longus
Tibialis Posterior

51

What does stimulation of the Plantar Reflex cause?

***PLANTAR REFLEX scrape the bottom of the foot  want to stimulate the DEEP PRESSURE RECEPTORS 

- want to stimulate the response of SLIPPING  grip toes!! = TOES FLEX

52

What is the Babinski Sign?

HALLUX EXTENDS & toes ABDUCT**

Sign of UPPER MOTOR LESION

- Babies have this reflex & it is not abnormal
0 their cords have not been MYLENATED
Legs aren’t mylenated until 10 months to a year (when kids start walking)  this sign disappears
- Hallux extends (big toe) & tos ABDUCT

53

First year medical student is try to find dorsalis pedis pulse. Which of the following would serve as landmark?

A: lateral to extensor hallucis longus tendon
B: Medial to extensor digitorum longus tendon
Over intermediate cuneiform
Over the 2nd metarsal bone
Wed space between toes 1 and 2

A: Lateral to the Extensor Hallucis Tendon

54

Long distance runner is experiencing pain in the anteromedial aspect of her leg when pushing off the ground. Which is the cause?

E: Tibialis Posterior

E: Tibialis Posterior

55

The tack has impaled the flexor digitorum longus tendon and damaged the adjacent nerve. Which of the following muscles would be affected?


B: Flexor Digitorum Brevis (LAFF)

56

The LATERAL Malleolus is found on which bone? The medial?

Lateral = Fibula

Medial = TIBIA

57

Which muscle inserts onto the tendon of the extensor digitorum longus?

Extensor Digitorum Brevis

58

What two muscles insert onto the tendon of FLEXOR digitorum longus?

1. Quadratus PLantae

2. Lumbricals*****

- LUMBRICALS COME OFF OF THE FLEXOR**

59

The deep branch of the lateral plantar artery joins the deep plantar branch of the _______ artery to form the plantar arterial arch.

Dorsalis Pedis

60

A patient has stepped on a board with a long nail sticking up from it, and the nail penetrated the patient's foot between the bases of the first and second metatarsals. What artery is most likely injured at this location?
arcuate
deep plantar
dorsalis pedis
lateral plantar
medial plantar


DEEP PLANTAR A.

The deep plantar artery is a branch of dorsalis pedis, the major artery supplying blood to the dorsum of the foot. The deep plantar artery dives from the dorsum of the foot to the sole of the foot between the two heads of the dorsal interosseous muscle between the first and second toes. It then unites with the lateral plantar artery to form the plantar arterial arch. The arcuate artery is on the dorsum of the foot. It would be unlikely to injure this artery from the plantar surface. The medial plantar artery is also on the medial side of the foot and it does distribute to the area where the injury occured. However, the medial plantar artery supplies blood to the superficial plantar surface of the foot, and the scenario in the question points to an injury that would disturb deep structures in the foot. So, deep plantar artery is the best answer.

61

A soldier complains of foot pain following a 50 mile hike. Upon examination, the physician diagnoses tendonitis of the fibularis longus tendon. Because the tenderness is located deeply on the sole of the foot, it appears that the irritation occurred where the tendon lies against bone, covered by a structure called the:
long plantar ligament
plantar aponeurosis
short plantar ligament
spring ligament
tendon of tibialis posterior

Long Plantar Ligament

62

A construction worker lacerates the dorsum of his foot just below his ankle. Profuse bleeding that occurs would result from cutting which vessel?
small saphenous vein
dorsalis pedis artery
medial plantar artery
anterior tibial artery
fibular artery

Dorsalis Pedis

63

Compression of the lateral plantar nerve as it passes between the flexor digitorum brevis and quadratus plantae could result in weakness of any of the following actions EXCEPT:
abduction of the great toe
adduction of the middle toe
abduction of the little toe
adduction of the great toe
abduction of the middle toe

ABDUCTION of the big toe

64

Pain may result from friction of the tendon of which muscle that passes deep to the anterior fibers of the long plantar ligament.
tibialis posterior
flexor hallucis longus
fibularis longus
tibialis anterior
flexor hallucis brevis

Fibularis Longus

65

A construction worker steps on a board with a nail in it. The nail pierces the sole of his boot and enters his foot 2 cm anterior to his calcaneal tuberosity, at the middle of the width of his foot. Before reaching bone, the nail would pass through, in order:
A Skin, calcaneometatarsal ligament, flexor digitorum brevis, quadratus plantae, long plantar ligament
B Skin, plantar aponeurosis, flexor digitorum brevis, quadratus plantae, long plantar ligament
C Skin, plantar aponeurosis, flexor digitorum brevis, tendons of the flexor digitorum longus, long plantar ligament
D Skin, plantar aponeurosis, quadratus plantae, flexor digitorum brevis, long plantar ligament
E Skin,transverse metatarsal ligament, flexor digitorum brevis, quadratus plantae, long plantar ligament

B

66

In an accident involving farm machinery, a farmer recieves a cut on the dorsum of his ankle. As you inspect the wound and test for functional and sensory deficits, you find that no tendons have been cut, but the dorsalis pedis artery and the accompanying nerve have been cut. You would expect to find:
club foot
foot drop
inability to extend the big toe
numbness between the first and second toes
weakness in inversion of the foot

Numbness between 1st and 2nd toe

67

What nerve runs with the doornails pedis artery?

The nerve running with the dorsalis pedis artery is the deep fibular nerve.

68

While walking barefoot on the beach in Florida following final exams, a medical student steps on a sharp shell which punctures the sole of her foot. She notices that she can no longer spread her toes apart (without using her hands, that is). Which nerve must have been injured?
deep fibular
lateral plantar
medial plantar
sural
tibial

The correct answer is: lateral plantar
This medical student is unable to abduct her toes--this must mean that her dorsal interosseus muscles are denervated. These dorsal interosseus muscles are innervated by the deep branch of the lateral plantar nerve, so this must be the nerve that was damaged. The medial plantar nerve innervates muscles on the plantar surface of the foot, including abductor hallucis, flexor hallucis brevis, and flexor digitorum brevis. None of these muscles are responsible for abducting the toes.

69

A long distance runner complained of swelling and pain of his shin. At physical examination, skin testing showed normal cutaneous sensation of the leg. However, muscular strength tests showed marked weakness of dorsiflexion and impaired inversion of the foot. Which nerve serves the muscles involved?
common fibular
deep fibular
sciatic
superficial fibular
tibial

DEEP FIBULAR!!!

70

A patient has been diagnosed with bone cancer in the fibula that necessitates its removal. Which of the following muscles would be least affected following removal of the fibula?
biceps femoris
extensor digitorum longus
flexor digitorum longus
flexor hallucis longus
peroneus tertius

FLEXOR DIGITORUM LONGUS