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Flashcards in Abdomen I Deck (73)
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1

Peritoneum and its Layers

Serous Membrane which forms the lining of the abdominal cavity

Composed of 2 layers:

PARIETAL
-lines the anterior, posterior, lateral walls of the abdomen. The inferior surface of Diaphragm and the pelvic cavity.

VISCERAL
-leaves the body wall to surround abdominal viscera. It is wrapped around the internal organs that are located inside the intraperitoneal space and is thinner than the parietal peritoneum.

2

What is between the parietal and visceral layers of the peritoneum?

The peritoneal cavity which is filled with serous fluid, to allow free movement of viscera

3

Subdivisions of the peritoneal cavity

GREATER SAC
-accounts for most of the space of the peritoneal cavity
-the first place you enter when you open the peritoneum

LESSER SAC
-a small space posterior to the lesser omentum, stomach, liver and inside the greater omentum.
-Continuous to the greater sac via the omental (epiploic) foramen

4

How do the greater and lesser sac of the peritoneal cavity communicate with each other?

Via the Epiploic foramen (Foramen of Winslow')

5

Difference between lesser sac of males and females

Males- closed cavity

Females- The fallopian tube opens through it into the peritoneal cavity

6

Dorsal mesentery

Double layer of peritoneum

During development the gut tube (Foregut- midgut and hindgut) invaginates into the peritoneal cavity and is suspended from the posterior abdominal wall by this dorsal mesentery.

7

Names of the peritoneal folds (based on location in GIT):

(a) Stomach- Omentum [lesser and greater]
(b) Small intestine- Mesentery
(c) Large Intestine- Meso-colon [mesoappendix, transverse mesocolon, sigmoid mesocolon]
(d) Abdominal Organs- Ligament [Falciform]

8

Freely mobile organs

These organs are completely covered by visceral peritoneum so are freely mobile.

-stomach
-1st part of duodenum
-jejunum
-ileum
-appendix
-transverse colon
-sigmoid colon
-liver
-spleen

9

Abdominal Viscera

The internal organs enclosed within the abdominal cavity

10

Retroperitoneal Organs

Organs which develop or come to lie upon the posterior abdominal wall, posterior to the visceral peritoneum.

SAD PUCKER

Suprarenal glands
Aorta
Duodenum (2nd/3rd parts)
Pancreas
Ureter
Colon
Kidney
Esophagus
Rectum

11

Ligament

Double layer of peritoneum which connects an organ with another or anterior abdominal wall e.g. Falciform ligament

12

Mesentery

Double layer of peritoneum which results from the invagination of the peritoneum by the small intestine

13

Omentum

Double layer of peritoneum passing from the stomach and first part of duodenum to adjacent organs.

-Greater omentum- greater curvature of stomach
-Lesser omentum- lesser curvature of stomach

14

Nerve supply to the peritoneum

Parietal peritoneum:
- Somatic nerves of the overlying muscles and skin (ex. diaphragmatic peritoneum by phrenic N.)

Visceral peritoneum:
- Autonomic nerves with the underlying viscera

15

What specific type of innervation does the Visceral peritoneum lack and what type does it have?

It doesn't have a somatic innervation (it is insensitive to pain) but it receive sympathetic innervation (sensitive to stretch, tension and ischemia).

16

Blood supply of the 3 parts of the gut tube

(1) Foregut- Celiac trunk (T12)

(2) Midgut- Superior mesenteric artery (L1)

(3) Hindgut- Inferior mesenteric artery (L3)

17

Commonalities shared by the blood supply of the gut tube

-All 3 arteries are single unpaired branches

-All 3 arteries arise from the anterior surface of the Abdominal Aorta

-All 3 branches anastomose with each other, providing alternative routes of arterial supply

18

Organs of the Foregut

Stomach
Liver
Gallbladder
Pancreas
Spleen
1st half of duodenum

19

Organs of the Midgut

2nd half of duodenum
Jejunum
Ileum
Cecum
Ascending colon
Two thirds of transverse colon

20

Organs of Hindgut

Left one third of transverse colon
Descending colon
Sigmoid colon
Rectum

21

Branches of the Celiac Trunk

Splenic
Left gastric
Common hepatic

22

Branches of the Superior Mesenteric Artery

Ileocolic
Right Colic
Middle Colic

23

Branches of the Inferior Mesenteric

Left Colic
Sigmoid branches
Superior rectal

24

Favorite number for the stomach

2

25

Rule of twos of the stomach

-2 borders with 2 omenta (greater & lesser)
-2 sacs (greater & lesser)
-2 surfaces (anterior & posterior)
-2 ends (cardiac & pyloric)

26

Divisions of the Stomach

Cardia, Fundus, Body, Pylorus (antrum, canal and sphincter)

27

Rugae

Mucosa of stomach which is thrown into folds to allow for dilation of the stomach

28

Blood supply to stomach

Celiac trunk

29

What separates the structures of the stomach bed, from the stomach?

Lesser Sac

30

Structures of the stomach bed

Spleen + 4 left and 4 transverse organs

4 LEFT: (left kidney, left suprarenal, left colic flexure, left crus of diaphragm)

4 TRANSVERSE (transverse colon, transverse mesocolon, body of pancreas and splenic artery)