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Flashcards in Orbits II Deck (49)
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The three functional layers of the eye

Sclera, Choroid, Retina


The section of the eye with the steepest curvature

The anterior 1/6th where the cornea is


The primary refractor of light in the eye? The secondary refractor?

Primary: Cornea
Secondary: Lens- for up close vision


Which part of the eye handles refracting light for everything 10-12 feet away and beyond?



Which part of the eye handles refracting light for things up close?



What fills the choroid layer?

Blood vessels and nerve fibers


Posterior chamber

Space between the iris and the lens


Postremal chamber

Aka the vitreous body. This is where the vitreous humor is located. It helps absorb stray photons so has a little bit of pigment associated with it.


Uveal layer

Area filled with blood vessels, visible if the Sclera is peeled off. Busy area between Corneal Limbus and the Ora Serrata.


Where are the ciliary muscles located? What shape do these muscles have and how does that affect their function?

In the Uveal layer. Most of them are circumferential so when they contract, they shrink thereby releasing tension on the zonular fibers, allowing the lens to "get fat". When they are relaxed, they expand, stretching the lens out flat.


Ciliary processes vs Ciliary Body

Process: Double epithelial layer which creates aqueous humor.
Body: Everything, including the muscle


Aqueous humor

Thin watery substance which carries oxygen and proteins to keep the Cornea healthy. Stored in the anterior chamber.


Pressure from what, helps to hold the shape of the cornea?

From the aqueous humor


Why and how is aqueous humor drained?

There is more aqueous humor being produced then is needed at a given time. Overproduction without drainage will cause an increase in pressure, damaging the Cornea.

It is drained via the Canal of Schlemm, in the limbus area where the cornea meets the sclera. It is also known as the scleral-venous sinus.


What sits on top of the Canal of Schlemm?

The trabecular network. This means that aqueous humor must be actively pumped into the Canal of Schlemm.


What causes Glaucoma?

Caused by a blockage of the drain or disabling of the pumps, needed to drain aqueous humor. Leads to the pressure bulging backwards onto the vitreous humor and compressing the neural retina in the back of the eye, leading to blindness.


Two types of Glaucoma

Angle closure (iris is pushed over the trabeculi, blocking the Canal of Schlemm).

Open Angle (Aqueous does not drain through opening due to pump not working or some other blockage)


Bright light causes what type of nervous system stimulation?

Parasympathetic (causing pupil constriction)


Difference between the sympathetic and parasympathetic muscle shape in the eye.

Parasympathetic muscles are circular, allowing them to constrict the pupil size.

Sympathetic muscles are radially oriented allowing them to dilate the pupil size.


Meridonal fibers of the Ciliary Muscle

Ensure that when the circular ciliary fibers contract they only affect the lens and don't pinch in and change the shape of the cornea.


Zonular Fibers

Connect the ciliary muscle to the lens. Insert into glycoprotein capsule which surrounds the lens (we don't want to insert directly into the lens).


Nuclei for the lens are located where?

In the periphery of the lens cells, so as not to interfere with the light refraction. The older one gets, the fewer of these nuclei remain.


Ciliary muscle is innervated only by...

Parasympathetic nervous system


Why do older folks need to where reading glasses?

As you get older, the lenses lose elasticity, so there is more trouble focusing on objects that are close to you-- called presbyopia.


3 Distinct Layers of the Retina

Ganglian Cell Layer, Internuclear Layer (cell bodies of all of the interneurons), Photoreceptor Layer


Blood vessels which run through the neuro retina

There are none. All the needed vessels sit on the top and feed the inner limiting membrane which then feeds Muller cells. The Muller cells then transport the nutrients to the neuronal cells.


Muller cells

The supporting cells of the neurons in the retina. Help to create and maintain a favorable microenvironment , fill in empty spaces and provide metabolic support. The span the full length of the retina, to the outer limiting membrane (but not past the photoreceptor layer).


Are there more rods or cones in the photoreceptor layer?

Lots of rods, very few cones


What part of the eye has all cones and no rods?

The fovea


Most likely location to detach a retina.

Between the pigmented epithelium and the photoreceptor, because they have a very weak attachment.

Losing that blood supply from the epithelium will kill the photoreceptors, so there is a 24 hour window or so to fix it.