Abdominal/Gastrointestinal assessment Flashcards Preview

Health Promotion and Assessment > Abdominal/Gastrointestinal assessment > Flashcards

Flashcards in Abdominal/Gastrointestinal assessment Deck (80):
1

What are the different landmarks for the GI system?

Pubic symphysic, ziphoid process, costal margins

2

How many quadrants is the GI system typically divided into?

4

3

What is the most common issue for the RLQ?

appendix issues (gynecological as well)

4

What are the LLQ issues mostly related to?

colon

5

Patients mostly come in complaining of what related to GI?
How do kids describe GI pain?

Most patients complain of pain
Kids will point to belly button, regardless of issue

6

Hematemesis

Vomitting blood

7

Difficulty swallowing

Dysphagia

8

Pain when swallowing

Odynophagia

9

Liver issue causing yellowing of the skin

Jaundice

10

How is heart burn affected when a person lies down?

Gets worse since gravity is no longer assisting them

11

What are some common descriptors of heart burn?

Burning sensation
metallic taste in mouth
increased amount of burping

12

Pain associated with organs.

visceral pain

13

Type of pain that is well localized over the involved structure (e.g. appendicitis)

Parietal pain

14

What is an example of a GI issue that will have radiating pain?

Gallbladder attack -- back pain, nausea

15

Why do many patients engage in the fetal position when having GI distress?

reduced irritation and distension of the peritoneum

16

If eating makes the pain lesser, what is most likely the GI issues?

Peptic ulcer (stomach)

17

If eating makes the pain worse, what is most likely the GI issue?

Esophageal reflux

18

Where does appendix pain usually start, before moving to the RLQ?

Belly button

19

Why can dentures cause pain to older adults?

As we get older, our facial structure and mouth changes size - dentures may not fit well and start to rub

20

What are the cranial nerves to keep in mind for GI?

CN 9 and 11 - for swallowing

21

What may be the only symptom of GERD (gastric esophageal reflux disease)?

coughing

22

How may LOC impact GI?

may be an issue for swallowing

23

Who are at most risk for dehydration related to vomiting?

Children and the elderly

24

When vomit looks like it has coffee grinds, what does this mean?

Dry blood is present

25

What is frank hematemesis?

Bright red blood in vomit

26

Why is it important to ask where a person has eaten if they have had food poisoning?

We track this information for public health

27

What are the questions we ask for stool?

Nature, consistency, frequency, amount, odour, colour.

28

What is the biggest red flag for colour in bowel movements?

Black, tarry stools - digested blood called melena

29

Melena occurs due to what?

Issues in the SI or lower - often related to colon cancer

30

Why is it more concerning if people have diarrhea at night?

Bowels are usually inactive at night - will be worried of inflammatory bowel disease if there is not a GI bug

31

What is important to also note if a patient is having diarrhea?

any weight loss

32

What is the cutoff for constipation?

10 days without a bowel movement (esp. children) is constipation

33

What is the likely cause of the inability to fully evacuate the bowels?

Obstruction - either due to cancer or decreased in colon peristalsis

34

What is steatorrhea?

Increased amount of fat in stools related to pancreatitis

35

How is peristalsis affected as we age?

Decreases

36

What is the meme about fiber in the diet?

Need to also have fluids or else this won't help at all

37

What is the BPG for fluid intake?

6-8 glasses per day

38

What is important regarding patients post-surgery?

Ambulate them to stimulate peristalsis

39

What is one of the number one reasons children get constipated?

Not going to the bathroom out of embarrassment (may be an issue in hospitals)

40

How do personal habits come into play when a person is constipated?

Nurse can help implement a bowel routine - ex: going to the bathroom after eating to promote peristalsis

41

Why do health professionals try to avoid the use of laxatives for treatment of constipation?

The bowel can get trained to be reliant on them

42

What is the best position for evacuating the bowels?

Raising the knees
(left side, fetal position)

43

What is encopresis? Why does it happen?

Involuntary loss of control of the bowel.
Happens to children when they hold in their bowel movement.

44

How do anesthetics affect bowel movements?

stops bowel movements, then slows them down

45

What are some medications that cause constipation?

Opioids and narcotics
iron supplements
Meds affecting urination: diuretics, anti-cholinergics, SSRIs
(pretty much any medication)

46

How can diagnostic tests affect the GI system?

some diagnostic tests can reduce peristalsis

47

What is the order of techniques for GI assessment?

Inspection, auscultation, palpation, percussion.

48

Where does inspection begin?

Upper GI - ex: teeth

49

What is Hutchinson's teeth related to?

(congenital syphilis)
acid erosion pathology

50

How does vitamin B deficiency manifest itself in the GI system?

angular stomatitis (sides of lips get roasted)

51

How do many medications affect the gums?

Cause gingival hypertrophy

52

Pigmentation of the gums is often due to what?

Cancer

53

What is scrotal tongue?

Benign, non-pathological condition causing fissures in the tongue

54

What causes strawberry tongue?

Scarlet fever

55

What is a classic stance that GI patients will adopt?

Guarding stance

56

What are some things we inspect for for the GI assessment?

Skin colour
symmetry, size, shape, distension
facial expression and posture
general behaviour

57

What are striae

stretch marks

58

Accumulation of fluid in the abdomen causes what? What is done for it?

ascites - drain it

59

What is the purpose of auscultation for GI assessment?

Listen for bowel sounds/peristalsis

60

What is the normal rate of bowel sounds?

5-35 sounds per minute

61

Auscultation of the GI system is not really important unless what?

there is pain

62

How long does one have to listen for before one can say bowel sounds are absent?

5 minutes (each quadrant)

63

What could cause hyperactive bowel sounds?

irritable bowel syndrome, diarrhea

64

What could cause hypoactive bowel sounds?

post-surgery, immobility, constipation

65

When is the optimal time to listen for bowel sounds?

after eating

66

Are bowel sounds heard even if there is an obstruction?

yes, still can hear some

67

When is the bell used for abdominal assessment?

to listen for bruits

68

Percussion.
What kind of sounds should be heard over organs?
Everywhere else?
Constipation?

dullness
tympanic - air filled
dullness

69

What is the purpose of palpation of the abdomen?

Detect areas of tenderness, unexpected distension, or masses

70

How can the stethoscope be used for palpation?

Press gently to make sure patient actually feels pain in those areas

71

What is rebound tenderness, and what is it a sign of?

pain on the rebound after pushing the hand down
associated with appendicitis

72

What is palpated last for the abdomen?

the area of tenderness

73

CVA - costal vertebral tenderness is associated with what?

Kidney issues

74

What is the abdominal shape of children?

Protuberant

75

How may the umbilicus be affected in pregnant women?

may pop out

76

For older people, why is it easier to palpate?

less muscle tone

77

Why is a CBC done for GI asesssment?

asses infection, anemia with Celiac, etc.

78

What is the purpose of an occult blood test?

Determine if there is blood in the stool that cannot be seen

79

What is endoscopy? Colonoscopy?

Mouth to stomach
rectum to stomach

80

Endoscopy going into the biliary tree of the liver into the pancreatic system

ERCP