Abdominal Organs Flashcards Preview

Anatomy Exam 2 > Abdominal Organs > Flashcards

Flashcards in Abdominal Organs Deck (83):
1

The largest lymphoid organ

spleen

2

The spleen does what two main functions

stores WBC, filters out old RBC

3

The first large trunk off of the abdominal aorta

celiac trunk

4

The celiac trunk divides into what 2 main branches

common hepatic artery and splenic artery

5

The hepatic portal vein is made by the connection between the ___ and ___

superior mesenteric vein and splenic vein

6

The muscles in the throat that allow swallowing

pharyngeal constrictors

7

The sphincter made up by the cricopharyngeal part of the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle to prevent food from going back up to the pharynx from the esophagus

upper esophageal sphincter

8

The sphincter made up by the diaphragmatic musculature forming the esophageal hiatus to prevent food from moving from the stomach back up into the esophagus

lower esophageal sphincter

9

The opening of the diaphragm that allows the esophagus to run through

esophageal hiatus

10

The upper stomach can herniate into the ___ through the esophageal hiatus

diaphragm

11

The esophagus has a connection between the hepatic portal system and the systemic system (via either IVC or azygos vein) and with hepatic portal hypertension can result in

esophageal varices

12

The esophagus is innervated by the ___ (para), ____ (sym) and has visceral sensory

vagus nerve; visceral branches of cervical and thoracic sympathetic trunks

13

The enlarged part of the digestive tract located inferior to the diaphragm and liver

stomach

14

The opening from the esophagus into the stomach

cardial notch

15

The part of the stomach surrounding cardial orifice

cardia

16

The part of the stomach superior to cardial notch

fundus

17

Large midportion of stomach

body

18

Funnel-shaped region of stomach leading to pyloric orifice

pyloric region

19

Left border of the stomach

greater curvature

20

right border of the stomach

lesser curvature

21

Area of stomach between esophagus and fundus

cardial notch

22

Controls movement from stomach into duodenum

pyloric sphincter

23

The folding of mucosa and submucosa during contraction of smooth muscle of stomach and when the stomach is empty

gastric folds/rugae

24

The stomach and spleen are innervated by ____ (para) ____ (sym) and also have visceral sensory

vagus nerve; thoracic splanchnic nerves to celiac ganglion

25

A lymphatic capillary in a villus is a

lacteal

26

The mostly posterior portion of the small intestine is the

duodenum

27

The majority of digestion and absorption of food occurs in the

small intestine

28

The connection between the duodenum and jejunum is the

duodenal-jejunal junction

29

This holds the small intestine to the posterior wall and is located at the d-j junction

ligament of Trietz

30

All venous blood from the small intestine goes to the ___ and into the ___

hepatic portal vein; liver

31

From the small intestine, fats enter the ___ and all other digested material enters ___

lymph; blood

32

A folding of epithelial layer in the small intestine is called a

villi

33

The upper quadrants of the SI are mostly

duodenum and jejunum

34

the lower quadrants of the SI are mostly

ileum

35

The common bile duct is made up of the ___ from the gall bladder and the ___ from the liver

cystic duct; hepatic duct

36

When the common bile duct merges with the pancreatic duct it creates the

hepatopancreatic ampulla

37

The hepatopancreatic ampulla enters the duodenum via the

major duondenal papilla

38

The ___ leaves the pancreas with digestive enzymes to enter the duodenum via the ____

accessory pancreatic duct; minor duodenal papilla

39

The ___ of the SI begins at the duodenal-jejunal junction

jejunum

40

There is no outer demarcation between the jejunum and the ileum, but internally ____

the circular folds are larger in the jejunum and they are completely gone by the terminal ileum

41

The ileum ends at the

ileocecal junction

42

The circular folds of the mucosa and submucosa of the small intestine are called

pliea circularis

43

What organ has both endocrine and exocrine fucntion with its head medial to the duodenum and the body and tail posterior to the stomach

pancreas

44

The endocrine function of the pancreas releases

insulin and glucagon

45

The exocrine function of the pancreas releases

digestive enzymes into the duodenum

46

The ___ detoxify blood and create bile

hepatocytes

47

The capillaries within the liver are called

hepatic sinusoids

48

Blood enters the liver via

hepatic artery or hepatic portal vein

49

The right, middle, and left hepatic veins leave the liver and enter the

IVC

50

The organ inferior to the diaphragm in the right hypochondriac and epigastric regions that moves up and down with the diaphragm

liver

51

The superior surface of the liver is the ___ and the inferior surface is the ____

diaphragmatic; visceral

52

The lobe of the liver next to the IVC (right side) is the

caudate lobe

53

The lobe of the liver next to the gall bladder (between r and l)

quadrate lobe

54

The sac on the inferior surface of the liver that stores bile is the

gall bladder

55

The R and L hepatic ducts merging into the bile duct create the

common hepatic duct

56

The duct from the gall bladder into the bile duct is the

cystic duct

57

Between meals, the sphincter of the bile duct is ___ and bile ____

closed; travels through cystic duct back up to the gall bladder

58

Right after you eat, the sphincter of the bile duct is ___ and bile____

open/relaxed; enters the duodenum

59

The innervation of the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder is ___ (para) ____ (sym) and there is visceral sensory

vagus nerve; thoracic splanchnic to celiac and superior mesenteric ganglia

60

The organ from the ileocecal junction to the anus, that converts undigested food into feces by absorbing water, salts and vitamins

large intestine

61

The longitudinal smooth muscle layer of the LI is incomplete, so 3 muscular bands called ___ run along the length of the colon

tenia coli

62

When the tenia coli contract, it forms pouches called

haustra

63

The fat-filled connective tissue pouches attached to the outer surface of the colon are called

epiploic appendages

64

The small intestine and large intestine are connected at the

ileocecal orifice/ ileocecal valve

65

The appendix has what 2 assumed functions

stores white blood cells, stores microbiota that can repopulate after the large intestine has been wiped out

66

The transverse colon is supplied by the ___ artery

middle colic

67

The ascending colon is supplied by the ____ artery

right colic

68

The cecum, appendix, and ileum are supplied by the ___ artery

ileocolic

69

The colon is supplied by branches off of the ______ artery and _____ artery

superior and inferior mesenteric

70

The _____ artery is the connection between the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries

marginal artery

71

The descending colon is supplied by the ___ artery

left colic

72

The ____ and ___ arteries anastamose via the marginal artery

left colic and middle colic

73

The sigmoid colon is supplied by the ____ artery

sigmoid

74

The superior 1/3 of the rectum is supplied by the ____ artery, which is the inferior continuation of the inferior mesenteric after the left colic and sigmoid branches

superior rectal

75

The abdominal arteries and veins travel together and supply/drain the same thing, except the inferior mesenteric vein follows the ____ artery superiorly

left colic

76

The splenic flexure is the landmark for the division of arterial supply to the large intestine. The intestine previous to the splenic flexure is supplied by the ____, whereas everything after the splenic flexure is supplied by the ____

superior mesenteric artery; inferior mesenteric artery

77

The middle and inferior 1/3s of the rectum are supplied by branches off of the

internal iliac artery

78

The innervation of the colon from cecum to splenic flexure is ____(parasym), ___ (sym), and there is visceral afferent

vagus nerve; thoracic splanchnic--> superior mesenteric ganglia --> post-ganglionic follows superior mesenteric artery

79

The innervation of the colon from the splenic flexure to the anal canal is ___ (parasym), ____ (sym), and there is visceral afferent

vagus nerve; pelvic splanchnic --> terminal ganglia in intestinal wall --> inferior hypogastric plexuses --> inferior mesenteric artery OR internal iliac artery; lumbar splanchnic --> inferior mesenteric ganglia --> inferior mesenteric artery and its branches; sacral splanchnic --> separate notecard

80

The sympathetic innervation of LI from splenic flexure to anal canal, sacral splanchnic still pre-ganglionic

sacral splanchnic --> synapse at inferior hypogastric ganglia --> follow internal iliac artery *IN PELVIS

81

The sympathetic innervation of LI from splenic flexure to anal canal, sacral splanchnic is post-ganglionic

sacral sympathetic trunk --> inferior hypogastric plexus --> follow internal iliac artery and branches

82

The consequence of portal hypertension that can be seen in the rectum due to its connection from internal iliac draining into the IVC or the inferior mesenteric into the hepatic portal vein is

hemorrhoids

83

The consequences of portal hypertension that is in the colon due to the connection of the lumbar veins draining into the IVC results in

colonic varices