Spinal Cord and Meninges Flashcards Preview

Anatomy Exam 2 > Spinal Cord and Meninges > Flashcards

Flashcards in Spinal Cord and Meninges Deck (48):
1

The spinal cord in an embryo is:

all the way down into the tail

2

After the 8th week of development, the spinal cord

loses its caudal portion when the tail is lost

3

At birth, the spinal cord

ends at L3-4

4

In an adult, the spinal cord

ends at L1-2

5

The very tip of the spinal cord is called

conus medullaris

6

Off of the conus medullaris, there are 3 types of “strings”

filum terminale, dorsal rootlets, ventral rootlets

7

There is an enlargement in the cervical spinal cord for

innervation of the upper limb

8

There is an enlargement in the lumbar spinal cord for

innervation of the lower limb

9

The first divisions off of the spinal cords are

dorsal and ventral rootlets

10

The rootlets come together to form

dorsal and ventral roots

11

The dorsal and ventral roots come together to form

spinal nerve

12

The spinal nerve divides into

anterior and posterior rami

13

The gray matter of the spinal cord and brain is made up of

cell bodies of neurons

14

The white matter of the spinal cord is made up of

axons

15

This nerve tract is sensory going up to the brain

acending

16

This nerve tract is motor going down from the brain

descending

17

This nerve tract is both sensory and motor as well as reflexive, and crosses the midline from R-L or L-R

commissural

18

The brainstem is made up of

midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata

19

The lower somatic motor goes from the ___ to the ___

CNS to PNS

20

The upper somatic motor goes from the ___ to the ___

CNS to CNS

21

The thalamus structures are all located in the

diencephalon

22

___ travel from one part of the brain to another

projecting fibers

23

The cerebral cortex is made up of ___ matter

gray

24

The upper motor neurons descend within the brain to synapse ___

on either lower motor cranial nerves or lower motor spinal nerves

25

Because somatic and visceral nerves synapse at the same place, visceral pain can be felt as physical pain—this is called

referred pain

26

This is considered the relay center of the brain

thalamus

27

Once a 3rd order neuron synapses on a cortical neuron ___

the sensation is perceived

28

Autonomic motor neurons synapse on ____

cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, glands

29

The autonomic system divides into the

parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions

30

Parasympathetic neurons have really ___ pre-ganglionics and really ___ post-ganglionics

long; short

31

Collateral ganglia are also known as ____ because they are found on the anterior sides of vertebral bodies

prevertebral ganglia

32

The sympathetic chain is also called the ____ because they are found on the lateral sides of the vertebral bodies

paravertebral

33

The gray rami communicans leads to ____

anterior or posterior rami

34

The white rami communicans leads to ____

sympathetic trunk

35

Thoracic and lumbar splanchnic nerves have only ___

pre-ganglionic

36

Sacral splanchnic nerves have ____

both pre- and post-ganglionic neurons

37

Sympathetic innervation to the adrenal medulla is only

pre-ganglionic

38

The adrenal medulla cells act as post-ganglionics and release

Epinephrine and Norepinephrine on a global level

39

The most external covering of the spinal cord is

dura mater

40

The space deep to the vertebral bone and before dura mater is

epidural space

41

The layer deep to the dura on top of the spinal cord is

arachnoid mater

42

The space between dura mater and arachnoid mater is

subdural space

43

This is a potential space since the arachnoid is normally pushed against the dura due to pressure of the CSF

subdural space

44

This is the space that contains the CSF

subarachnoid space

45

This is the actual connective tissue covering on neural tissue

pia mater

46

Lateral extensions of pia mater that come off the lateral surfaces of the spinal cord, pierce the arachnoid and attach to the dura to help hold the spinal cord in place, as well as separates dorsal from ventral rootlets

denticulate ligament

47

This is an extension off of the conus medullaris, located inside arachnoid mater, and found amongst the cauda equine

pial filum terminale

48

This is an extension off of the dural sac that attaches into the coccyx and comes out of the sacral hiatus

dural filum terminale