Thorax-mediastinum and heart Flashcards Preview

Anatomy Exam 2 > Thorax-mediastinum and heart > Flashcards

Flashcards in Thorax-mediastinum and heart Deck (105):
1

The heart has two muscular pumps

pulmonary and systemic circulation

2

Pulmonary circulation is between

the heart and lungs

3

Systemic circulation is between

heart and rest of body

4

Within pulmonary capillaries Co2 diffuses from ___ to ___

blood to air

5

Within pulmonary capillaries, O2 diffuses from ___ to ___

air to blood

6

Within systemic capillaries Co2 diffuses from ___ to __

body tissues to blood

7

Within systemic capillaries O2 diffuses from __ to __

blood to body tissues

8

The visceral pericardium is made of epithelial tissue producing pericardial fluid, loose connective tissue, and fat, and is called the

epicardium

9

The actual muscle of the heart is

myocardium

10

The internal lining of the ventricles and atria is epithelial tissue called

endocardium

11

The groove between the ventricles on the anterior side of the heart is called

anterior interventricular sulcus

12

The groove between the ventricles on the posterior side of the heart is called

posterior interventricular sulcus

13

The groove all the way around the heart, between atria and ventricles

coronary sulcus

14

All of the LA can been seen on the ___ side of the heart

posterior

15

The area where the LV and RV meet is called the

apex

16

The LA and part of the RA makes up the

base of the heart

17

The ___ and __ drain into the RA

IVC SVC

18

The azygos vein drains into the

SVC

19

The RV goes into the

pulmonary trunk

20

The pulmonary trunk divides into the

2 pulmonary arteries

21

The pulmonary arteries carry ___ blood

deoxygenated

22

The pulmonary arteries go into the ___

lungs

23

The LV goes into the

aorta

24

The ascending aorta then becomes the

aortic arch

25

The aortic arch becomes the

descending thoracic aorta

26

There are ___ pulmonary veins that drain into the ___

4, LA

27

The pulmonary veins have ___ blood; there are two on the right and two on the left

oxygenated; R superior and inferior, L superior and inferior

28

The branch of the vagus nerve that runs behind the arch of aorta on the L side

recurrent laryngeal

29

Connection between the aortic arch and pulmonary trunk

ligamentum arteriosum

30

This a. is a branch of the ascending aorta located posterior to pulmonary trunk and anterior to left auricle

left coronary artery

31

The left coronary artery divides into what two branches?

LAD and circumflex branch artery

32

The branch off of the LAD is the

lateral/diagonal branch of LAD

33

The branch off of the circumflex branch is the

left marginal artery

34

This a. supplies anterior part of RV and LV, and anterior part of interventricular septum

LAD

35

This a. supplies the anterior part of the LV

lateral branch of LAD

36

This a. supplies the LA and LV

circumflex branch of LCA

37

This a. supplies the LV

left marginal artery

38

This a. is a branch of the ascending aorta located within the right coronary sulcus between the RA and RV

right coronary artery

39

There are 4 branches off of the RCA:

SA nodal, AV nodal, right marginal, posterior interventricular

40

This a. supplies the SA node

SA nodal

41

This a. supplies the RV

right marginal artery

42

This a. supplies the posterior part of RV and LV and posterior part of interventricular septum

posterior interventricular artery

43

This a. supplies the AV node

AV nodal

44

This vein drains into the RA and is located in posterior coronary sulcus

coronary sinus

45

The ___ and ___ converge to form the coronary sinus

Great cardiac vein and left marginal vein

46

This v. drains anterior LV, RV, anterior part of IV septum

great cardiac vein

47

These two veins drain the LV

left marginal vein and left posterior ventricular vein

48

This v. drains posterior LV, RV, posterior part IV septum

middle cardiac vein

49

This v. drains RA, RV

small cardiac vein

50

These veins drain anterior RV, RA

anterior cardiac veins

51

There are __ anterior cardiac veins that drain into the __

anterior cardiac veins; RA

52

The great cardiac vein travels with what artery?

LAD

53

The left posterior ventricular vein travels with what artery?

circumflex branch of LCA

54

The middle cardiac vein travels with what artery?

left posterior interventricular artery

55

The small cardiac vein travels with what artery?

right marginal artery

56

The extensions of the atria are called

auricles

57

The fossa oval was the __ in the fetus

foramen oval

58

The foramen oval was present in the fetus to ___

shunt blood from the RA to LA

59

The incomplete closure of the foramen oval results in

atrial septal defect

60

The rough wall of the right atrium is made up of

pectinate muscle

61

The smooth wall of the right atrium is made up of

sinus venarum

62

The muscular ridge that is smooth and connects the pectinate muscle and the sinus venarum

crista terminalis

63

Below the fossa oval on the posterior wall is the

opening to the coronary sinus

64

The depression in the interatrial septum is called the

fossa oval

65

The pectinate muscle is derived from the __ in the embryo

atria

66

The smoothness that is the sinus venarum is because of the incorporation of the ___ in the embryo

SVC/IVC

67

The left auricle was the ___ in the embryo

LA

68

In the LA, there is only pectinate muscle in the

auricle

69

The smooth part of the LA is from the incorporation of the ___ in the embryo

pulmonary vein

70

The opening and closing of valves in the heart is due to

blood pressure

71

When the pressure in the atria is greater than the pressure in the ventricles, the valves

open

72

When the pressure in the ventricles is greater than the pressure in the atria, the valves

close

73

The papillary muscles are between the ___ and __

wall of the ventricle and chordae tendinae

74

The chordae tendinae is between the __ and __

papillary muscle and cusps of valves

75

The papillary muscles and chordae tendinae are there to prevent the valves from

everting into the atria

76

The semilunar valves do not have __ or ___

papillary muscles or chordae tendinae

77

Located in the RV to connect the IV septum to the anterior papillary muscle is the

moderator band

78

Muscles in the wall of the ventricles that are not papillary muscles but just in the walls

trabeculae carnae

79

The region in the RV right before the pulmonary valve

conus arteriosis

80

The opening of the LCA is located

right above the left cusp of the aortic valve

81

The opening of the RCA is located

right above the right cusp of the aortic valve

82

All of the valves of the heart are supported by

fibrous rings

83

Between the atria and ventricles, there is ___ to provide electrical insulation between the A and V, as well as provide attachments for cardiac muscle

fibrous connective tissue

84

The pacemaker of the heart is the

SA node

85

The action potentials travel from the SA node through the atria via

gap junctions in atrial muscle cells

86

Blood flow through the heart, starting with deoxygenated blood from the body

SVC, IVC, anterior cardiac veins, azygos vein --> RA --> tricuspid valve --> RV --> pulmonary valve --> pulmonary trunk --> pulmonary arteries --> pulmonary capillaries in lungs --> OXYGENATED --> pulmonary veins --> LA --> bicuspid valve --> LV --> aortic valve --> aorta --> to body

87

After birth, the ductus venosus becomes the

ligamentum venosum

88

After birth, the ductus arteriosis becomes the

ligamentum arteriosum

89

After birth, the umbilical vein closes off and becomes the

round ligament of the liver

90

Part of the umbilical arteries occlude, but the parts that do not go to the

urinary bladder

91

When the ventricles contract, the papillary muscles __, and that prevents the cusps of the AV from ___

contract, everting into atria

92

When the ventricles contract, the ___ open and the ___ stretch

semilunar valves; elastic arteries (both aorta and pulmonary trunk)

93

When the ventricles relax, the __ recoil, blood flows ___ and the ___ close

elastic arteries, back into the cusps, semilunar valves

94

The back flow of blood when the ventricles relax also sends blood to the ___ and helps to keep blood pressure up enough to get blood to travel

coronary arteries; through the body

95

The __ takes the action potential from the atria to the ventricles

atrioventricular bundle

96

The SA node is located in the

superior portion of the RA near the SVC

97

The AV node is located in the __

interatrial septum

98

The recurrent laryngeal nerve goes to the ____ muscles to move the ____

laryngeal; vocal folds

99

The anterior and posterior vagal trunks provide ___ innervation to the abdomen

parasympathetic

100

The R vagus nerve becomes the ___ on the posterior esophagus

posterior vagal trunk

101

The L vagus nerve becomes the ___ on the anterior esophagus through the diaphragm

anterior vagal trunk

102

The lymph coming from everything below the diaphragm on both sides drains into the

thoracic duct

103

The thoracic duct drains lymph into the

left venous angle (IJ and subclavian making up the brachiocephalic)

104

The thoracic duct contains ___ as well as lymph

chyme (fat)

105

The R jugular, bronchiomediastinal, and subclavian trunks of the lymphatic system drain separately into the

right venous angle