Abdominal pain and rectal bleeding Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Abdominal pain and rectal bleeding Deck (109)
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1
Q

GORD risk factors

A

smoking
alcohol
increased intra abdominal pressure- pregnancy, obesity, chronic cough
Meds that reduce LOS tone- eg NSAIDs and beta blockers

2
Q

GORD symptoms

A

Burning epigastric pain- may radiate up to chest. Can last up to 2 hours and is worse after eating, lying down or bending over.

Acid-bitter taste in mouth
Chronic cough
Hoarse voice
Bad breath

3
Q

GORD diagnosis

A

24 hour oesophageal pH monitoring

4
Q

When do you offer urgent upper GI endoscopy 2ww for oesophageal cancer?

A

Dysphagia or 55+ w/ weight loss AND any of:
Upper abdo pain
Reflux
Dyspepsia

5
Q

GORD non medical management

A

Reduce exacerbations:
stop smoking
reduce alcohol
avoid trigger foods
lose weight

Avoid precipitating situations:
raise head of bead (sleep w/ head higher than stomach)
eat earlier in the evening so stomach is empty when you lie down
wear looser clothes

6
Q

GORD medical management

A

OTC antacids
PPI for 4 weeks- care acn lead to C diff

Where conservative mnagement fails- can do a Nissen fundoplication - involves wrapping fundus of the stomach around the lower oesophagus to reinforce the LOS

7
Q

Complications of GORD

A

Chronic cough
Barret’s oesophagus- pre malignancy
Recurrent chest infections
Benign stricture
Oesophagitis

8
Q

Barret’s oesophagus what epithelium change is it

A

Stratified squamous epithelium -> columnar epithelium

9
Q

Barret’s oesophagus risk factors

A

Age
Obesity
Male White

10
Q

Barret’s oesophagus symptoms

A

same as GORD

11
Q

Barret’s oesophagus diagnosis

A

upper GI endoscopy w/ biopsy

12
Q

Barret’s oesophagus management

A

Lifestyle changes:
smaller meals
lose weight
stop smoking

High dose PPI
Endoscopic surveillance w/ biopsies every 3-5 years.
If dysplasia- endoscopic intervention is offered:
Radiofrequency ablation to destroy the epithelium so it’s replace w/ normal cells

13
Q

Peptic ulcer disease- gastric vs duodenal?

A

Gastric- older ppl. Epigastric pain WORSE WHEN EATING.

Duodenal- more common. Male and 45-64, epigastric pain when hungry, DECREASED BY EATING

14
Q

Peptic ulcer risk factors

A

H pylori
Drugs- NSAIDs, SSRIs, Corticosteroids,
Alcohol
Malignancies
Zollinger- Ellison syndrome
Caffeine
Smoking
Spicy food
Stress

15
Q

Peptic ulcer signs and symptoms

A

Sudden onset severe epigastric pain
Nausea
Dyspepsia
Heartburn
Mild epigastric tenderness

16
Q

When peptic ulcer presents as an acute UGIB- what are the features?

A

Haematemesis +/- melaena
Bleeding- gastroduodenal artery can be source of a sig GI bleed
Shock

17
Q

When peptic ulcer presents as a perforation- what are the features?

A

Acute, severe abdo pain and tenderness
Localised or generalised guarding
Shock
Usually sudden onset of epigastric pain before becoming more generalised. Also distention, nausea and vomiting

18
Q

Peptic ulcer investigations

A

Diagnosed by endoscopy.
H pylori test can be done - C13 urea breath test or serological and stool antigen test.
Before the H pylori test- stop PPIs 2 weeks before and Abx 4 weeks before

19
Q

Peptic ulcer management if H. Pylori positive

A

7 day course of PAC or PMC
PAC: PPI (eg esomeprazole) + amoxicillin + clarithromycin
PMC: if penicillin allergic: PPI + metronidazole + clarithromycin

20
Q

Peptic ulcer management if H pylori negative

A

PPIs until ulcer is healed
Or H2 blockers like ranitidine

21
Q

Perforated ulcer management

A

Laparotomy to repar the perforation and a washout of enteric contents from the peritoneal cavity

22
Q

Gastric perforation causes

A

Peptic ulcer
Diverticulitis
Malignancies
Procedures
Trauma
IBD
Bowel obstructions
Mesenteric ischaemia

23
Q

Gastric perforation signs and symptoms

A

Unwell
LOTS of pain
Peritonism- diffuse or local
Shock- septic and low BP

24
Q

Gastric perforation investigations

A

CT scan- confirming presence of free air suggesting a location of the perforation
Raised WCC and CRP
CXR- may show air under the diaphragm in cases of pneumoperitoneum
AXR may show either Rigler’s sign (both sides of bowel visible) or psoas signs (loss of sharp delineation of the psoas muscle border)

25
Q

Gastric perforation management

A

IV fluid resus
nil by mouth
broad spectrum abx
NG tube cosnidered to aspirate to clear out a small bowel obstruction
Pain relief (opioids)

Surgery- appropriate management of perforation
Thorough washout
Peptic ulcer perforation- patch of omentum (Graham patch) is tacked loosely over the ulcer. Midline laparotomy.
Small bowel perforation- can be accessed via a midline laparotomy

26
Q

Gastric cancer risk factors

A

Age
Male
H pylori
EBV
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)
Smoking
Alcohol
Diet- salt
Obesity

27
Q

Presenting features of Gastric cancer

A

dyspepsia
Abdo pain- typically vague, epigastric pain
weight loss and anorexia
N&V
Dysphagia
Haematemsis/melaena
Virchow’s node

28
Q

Gastric cancer 2 www (gastroscopy w/ biopsy) criteria

A

Presenting w/ one of:
Upper abdo mass consistent w/ gastric cancer
New onset dysphagia
Aged > 55 presenting w/ weight loss and either upper abdo pain, reflux or dyspepsia

IF taking a PPi of H2RB then stop it at least 2 weeks before endoscopy as it oculd mask serious underlying pathology like gastric cancer

29
Q

gastric cancer management

A

MDT
adequate nutrition
Chemo, radiotherapy
Operable ones are T1N0 or less
Survival is bad- average is 20% @ 5 years
Early stage is 90% but rarely present early

30
Q

Pancreatic cancer risk factors

A

Age
Smoking
Diabetes
Genetics

31
Q

Pancreatic cancer features

A

painless obstructive jaundice
palpable gall bladder (f bile isn’t flowing thru biliary tree), GB is enlarged.
Epigastric pain to back
weight loss
Hepatomegaly and malignant ascites

Courvoisier’s law RUQ mass- (palpable gall bladder) + painless jaundice, then it’s not a gallstone, implies a possible malignancy of pancreas or GB

32
Q

Pancreatic cancer 2 ww referral criteria

A

Over 40 and new onset jaundice

33
Q

Pancreatic cancer investigations- LFT findings and CT findings

A

LFTs- obstructive picture- raised bilirubin, ALP and GGT.
CT- diagnostic and staging- double duct sign- CBD and PD are dilated

34
Q

Pancreatic cancer treatment

A

often terminal, so pain relief, mental health, nutrition and mental health,
ERCP w/ stenting- open it up to alleviate some sypmtoms
Whipple’s resection (pancreaticoduodenectomy) is performed for resectable lesions in head of pancreas. Remove head of pancreas + duodenum + GB/bile duct. Attach what’s left of pancreas/stomach/bile duct -> small intestine. Side effects are dumping syndrome and peptic ulcer disease

35
Q

Appendicitis risk factors

A

Caucasians
Teens-40s

36
Q

Appendicitis symptoms

A

Peri umbilical pain- migration of pain from umbilical region to right iliac fossa. Classically dull and poorly localised initially but later migrates to the RIF where it’s well localised and sharp.

Low grade fever
N&V
Diarrhoea
Change in bowel habits - loose stools of constipation

37
Q

Appendicitis signs

A

RIF tenderness
Rebound tenderness- pain when pressure is REMOVED from the abdomen.
Percussion pain over McBurney’s point (2/3rds of the way bwt umbilicus and ASIS)
Rosving’s sign- RIF pain on palpation of LIF

38
Q

Appendicitis investigations

A

Clinical diagnosis
Raised inflamamtory markers
Imaging- USS can show inflamed appendix and free fluid
CT- good sensitivity and specificity

39
Q

Appendicitis management

A

Laparoscopic appendicectomy
In some cases abx is commenced and appendicectomy is delayed.
Appendix should routinely be sent to histopathology to look for malignancy.
As pear any laparoscopic procedure, the entire abdomen should be inspected for any other evident patholology

40
Q

AAA risk factors

A

Atherosclerosis
Smoking
HTN
Hyperlipidaemia

41
Q

AAA symptoms and signs non ruptured

A

usually asymptomatic
symptoms can be abdo pain
back/loin pain
distal embolisation producing limb ischaemia

42
Q

Ruptured AAA symptons and signs

A

Sudden collapse/shock
Persistent severe central abdominal pain radiating to the back/flank
V unwell
Haemodynamically compromised: hypotensive
Shock
Tachycardic
Reduced GCS
Cap refill prolonged
cold peripgeries

43
Q

AAA investigations for rupture

A

If haemodynamically unstable- diagnosis is clinical and taken theatre ASAP.
If haemodynamically stable- send for CT angiogram where diagnosis is in doubt this may also assess the suitability of endovascular repair

44
Q

AAA unrputured management

A

Men over 65, women over 70 w/ comorbidities invited to GP for US. If low rupture risk then surveillance.
IF high risk, refer within 2 weeks to vascualr surgery- elective endavascular repair or open repair- midline laparotomy exposing the aorta and clamping the aorta proximally and the iliac arteries distally, before the segment is then removed and replaced w/ a prosthetic graft.

45
Q

AAA ruptured management

A

Treat shock
ABCDE
High flow O2
IV fluid resus
Major haemorrhage protocol
Transfer to local vascular unit

46
Q

IBS risk factors

A

Women
Anxiety/depression
Concurrent GI infection
Stress event
Endometriosis

47
Q

IBS diagnostic criteria

A

Consider if patient has had the following for at least 6 months:
Abdo pain and/or
Bloating and/or
Change in bowel habit

Positive diagnosis should be made if pt has abdo pain relieved by defecation or associated w/ altered bowel frequency and stool form, in addition to 2 of the following 4 symptoms:
Altered stool passage (straining, urgency, incomplete evacuation), Abdominal bloating, distension, hardness, Symptoms worsened by eating, Passage of mucus

48
Q

IBS medical management

A

First line- according to predominant symptom-
Pain- antispasmodic agents
Constipation- laxatives eg senna
Diarrhoea- loperamide

Low dose tricyclic antidepressants

SSRIs

49
Q

IBS alternative management

A

Dietary advice:
Regular meals
Adequate fluid intake
Reduce processed foods
Reduce caffeine and alcohol
Low FODMAP diet - ideally w/ dietician advice (eg Eggs, meat, almond milk)
Food diary- try avoid trigger foods if any
Try probiotics for a month- see if they help

Psychological intervention- consider CBT referral if no response after 12 months pharma treatment. Helps psychologically manage the illness and any distress associated w/ the symptoms.

50
Q

What is coeliac disease

A

Autoimmune disorder due to gluten sensitivity. Repeated exposure leads to villous atrophy, which causes malabsorption. Immune response- chronic inflammation in small bowel.

51
Q

Coeliac disease signs and symptoms

A

Diarrhoea
Failure to thrive
Fatigue
Weight loss
Mouth ulcers
Recurrent abdo pain, cramping or disension
Unexplained iron deficiency anaemia

52
Q

Coeliac disease investigations and diagnosis

A

Serology-
Check total immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies to exclude IgA deficiency before checking
Tissue transglutaminase (TTG) antibodies - raised in coeliac, Endomyseal antibodies - raised in coeliac.
Carry out investigations while patient remains on diet containing gluten.
Gold standard for diagnosis- endoscopic intestinal biopsy- will show villous atrophy, crypt hyperplasia

53
Q

Coeliac disease management

A

Gluten free diet is essentially curative. Gluten containing cereals: wheat, barley-beer, oats.
Gluten free foods- rice, potatotes, corn (maize)

54
Q

Peritonitis common cause

A

spontaneous bacterial peritonitis usually seen in pts w/ ascites secondary to liver cirrhosis

55
Q

Peritonitis symptoms

A

Severe abdo pain- worse on movement, patients stay rigid, abdo distention, N&V, fever, sweating.

56
Q

Peritonitis signs

A

Absent/decreased bowel sounds- bcos of bowel obstruction -often caused by adhesions

57
Q

Peritonitis management

A

surgical exploration- fix what’s causing hte peritonitis eg ruptured ulcer, adhesion causing SB obstruction etc.
Abx broad spectrum- high dose follow local guideliens
Supportive treatment: oxygen, fluids etc

58
Q

Diverticulosis vs Dicerticular disease vs Diverticulitis

A

Diverticulosis = presence of diverticula w/o inflammation or infection
Diverticular disease- abdo pain but not inflam
Diverticulitis- inflammation and infection of diverticula

59
Q

Diverticulosis risk factors

A

Low fibre
Obesity
NSAIDs

60
Q

Diverticulosis symptoms and signs

A

Lower left abdo pain, constipation or rectal bleeding

61
Q

Diverticulosis management

A

Increased fibre in diet and bulk forming laxatives. Surgery to remove affected area may be required if sig symptoms. Treatment not necessary if asymptomatic

62
Q

Diverticulitis presentation

A

Sharp pain and tenderness in LIF
Fever
Change in bowel habit- constipation and diarrhoea
N&V
Rectal bleeding

63
Q

Diverticulitis investigations

A

FBC and CRP
Erect CXR may show pneumoperitoneum in cases of perforation
CT= could show thickening of colonic wall, localised air bubbles, free air etc.

64
Q

Diverticulitis management

A

Oral Abx, liquid diet and analgesia. Oral co amoxiclav (at least 5 days)
Surgical intervention is required in those w/ perforation w/ faecal peritonitis or sepsis. Inovlves a Hartmann’s procedure ( a sigmoid colectomy w/ formation of an end colostomy); an anastomosis w/ reversal of colostomy may be possible at a later date.

65
Q

Ulcerative Colitis what is it

A

diffuse continual mucosal inflammation of the large bowel- starting in the rectum and spreading proximally

66
Q

UC histological changes

A

mucosa to lamina propria only
Loss of goblet cells
Crypt abscess formation
NO SKIP LESIONS- CONTINUOUS INFLAMMATIOn

67
Q

UC symptoms

A

Diarrhoea w/ or w/o blood
Increased frequency and urgency of defecation
Tenesmus (feeling need to poo)
Abdo pain, particularly in LLQ
Mucus discharge
Weight loss

68
Q

UC extra intestinal manifestations

A

Conjunctivitis
Anterior uveitis
Enteropathic arthritis
Clubbing
Osteoporosis
Ankylosing spondylitis
Primary sclerosing cholangitis
Erythema nodosum
Pyoderma gangrenosum

69
Q

UC investigations

A

Faecal calprotectin is raised in IBD but unchanged in IBS
Stool sample
Definitive diagnosis is colonoscopy w/ biopsy. Characteristic findings are continuous inflammation w/ possible ulcers and pseudopolyps visible

70
Q

AXR findings on UC

A

Lead pipe colon
Toxic megacolon

71
Q

UC management

A

Severity is classed:
mild <4 stools/day
moderate 4-6 stools/day
severe >6 bloody stools/day + systemic upset

Inducing remission- treating mild - to moderate:
first line- topical, then add oral mesalazine
second line- prednisolone

Inducing remission for severe UC:
fisrt-line: IV hydration and hydrocortisone w/ thromboprophylaxis
second-line: IV ciclosporin

Maintaining remission: mesalazine oral or rectal, oral azathioprine

Surgery- can remove colon and rectum- panproctocolectomy. permanent ileostomy can be given

72
Q

What is Crohn’s disease

A

Crows NESTS- No blood or mucus (less common), Entire GI tract, Skip lesions on endoscopy, Terminal ileum most affected, smoking is a risk factor
Inflammation occurs in all layers, down to serosa across the GIT. Most commonly targets distal ileum/proximal colon. Skip lesions. Relapsing remitting.

73
Q

Crohn’s disease histological changes

A

All layers inflamed
Increased goblet cells
Granuloma
Cobblestone appearance

74
Q

Crohn’s disease symptoms

A

Episodic abdominal pain- may be colicky and site varies
Diarrhoea- often chronic and may contain blood/mucus
Oral ulcers
Perianal disease- inflammation at/near anus- including w/ perianal abscess
Systemic symptoms- malaise, fever, anorexia
Palpable RIF mass- often confused w/ appendicitis

75
Q

Crohn’s extra intestinal features

A

same as UC- PSC, gallstones, oral ulcers, arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum/erythema nodosum

76
Q

Crohn’s investigations (including x ray features)

A

Faecal calprotectin is raised
Colonoscopy w/ biopsy is gold standard- features suggestive of Crohn’s include deep ulcers, skip lesions
CT abdo- can demo bowel obstruction.
AXR- Kantor’s string sing: stricture formation narrows the bowel to appear like a string. Rosethorn ulcers: ulcer formation thru all layers of the mucosa generates a pattern that looks like a rose stem.

Order is AXR/faecal calprotectin -> CT and/or SB pelvic MRI -> colonoscopy/ UGI endoscopy w/ biopsy

77
Q

Crohn’s management

A

Inducing remission:
Steroids first line-
Mild/moderate: Budesonide and taper
Mod-severe: Prednisolone
Offer enteral nutrition instead of steds where steds aren’t working

Maintenance:
Stop smoking
Azathioprine and mercaptopurine first line
Biologics
Surgery if needed

78
Q

Colorectal cancer- location, most common type, genetic mutations

A

40% rectal
30% sigmoid
adenocarcinoma
APC (TSG- mutation results in growth of adenomatous tissue such as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)) FAP- hundreds of polyps in colon
Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC)- scanty polyps, usually right sided + increased risk of cancers

79
Q

Colorectal cancer symptoms

A

Changes in bowel habit
Rectal bleeding- Haematochezia
Weight loss
Appetite loss
Iron deficiency anaemia
Abdo or rectal mass
Unexplained abdo pain

80
Q

Location specific symptoms:
Right sided
Left sided

A

Right sided- iron deficiency anaemia, presents later

Left sided- apple core appearance- on barium enema they look like they have an apple core shape. Presents earlier

81
Q

Colorectal cancer 2ww criteria for usually a colonoscopy

A

Pts >=40 w/ unexplained weight loss AND abdo pain
Pts >= 50 w/ unexplained rectal bleeding
Pts >= 60 w/ iron deficiency anaemia OR change in bowel habit

82
Q

colorectal cancer investigations and diagnosis

A

FBC- microcytic anaemia (an iron deficiecny anaemia)
Haematinics/ferritin
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)- tumour marker for colorectal cancer
Colonoscopy + biopsy = gold standard
CT colonography

83
Q

Colorectal cancer management

A

MDT- palliative care, nurses, Macmillan
Definitive- surgery/resection eg Hartmann’s procedure- removal of rectosigmoid colon and creation of a colostomy.
Chemotherapy and radiotherapy: neoadjuvant, adjuvant, palliative

84
Q

Bowel obstruction common causes

A

SBO- adhesions and herniae
LBO- malignancy, diverticular disease and volvulus

85
Q

Bowel obstruction presentation

A

Colicky abdominal pain (anytime there’s peristalsis, there’s pain)
Vomiting- usually bileous
Abdominal distention
Absolute constipation bcos of true obstruction

86
Q

Bowel obstruction signs

A

distention
focal tenderness- guarding and rebound tenderness on palpation
Auscultation- tinkling bowel sounds

87
Q

Bowel obstruction investigations

A

Gold standard- CT w/ contrast

88
Q

Bowel obstruction management

A

nil by mouth
NG tube
IV fluids
Analgesia and anti emetics

89
Q

Gastroenteritis what is it? common causes? risk factors

A

inflammation of the stomach/intestinal system caused usually by a virus or a bacteria. Staph aureus, Norovirus.
Foreign travel

90
Q

Gastroenteritis presentation

A

Acute- happens within 2 weeks at most
N&V
Diarrhoea
Dehydration
Abdo pain

91
Q

Gastroenteritis diagnosis

A

Stool MCS

92
Q

Gastroenteritis management

A

lock in side room
fluids
avoid antidiarrhoeal meds
only give abx if high risk

93
Q

Haemorrhoids- what are they and risk factors

A

enlarged anal vascular cushions
pregnancy
obesity
age
increased intra-abdo pressure

94
Q

haemorrhoids symptoms and signs

A

often associated w/ constipation and straining
painless, bright red bleeding0 blood is not mixed w/ stool
sore,itchy anus
lump around/inside the anus
external haemorrhoids are visible on inspection as swellings covered in mucosa
internal haemorrhoids may be felt on PR exam

95
Q

haemorrhoids management

A

soften stools- increase dietary fibres and fluid intake
Topical local anaesthetics and steroids to help symptoms- eg anusol- shrinks haemorrhoids
Outpt treatment- rubber band ligation to cut off blood supply

96
Q

Anal fissures what are they- risk factors

A

Tears in the mucosal lining of the anal canal, most commonly due to trauma from defecation of hard stool.
Constipation, dehydration, IBD, chronic diarrhoea, STIs

97
Q

anal fissure symptoms and signs

A

sharp pain on defecation
intense pain post defecation
bright red, rectal bleeding
fissures can be visible and/or palpable (painfully) on DRE

98
Q

anal fissure management

A

soften stool:
dietary advice- high fibre w/ high fluids
bulk forming laxatives
lubricants like petroleum jelly may be tried before defecation
topical anaeshtetics
analgesia

If chronic: GTN cream/diltiazem cream- increases blood supply to region and relaxes IAS

can consider referral for surgery if GTN is not effective after 8 weeks

99
Q

Perianal abscess and fistula - what is it and common causative organisms, risk factors

A

collection of pus in subcut tissue of anus
E. Coli

Male
Crohns
Diabetes

100
Q

Perianal abscess symptoms and signs

A

skin irritation around anus
anal pain- worsened by sitting
pus-like discharge from anus
bleeding

Erythematous, fluctuant tender perianal mass, which may be discharging pus

101
Q

perianal abscess investigations

A

Diagnosis is typically clinical
MRI is gold standard for imaging

102
Q

perianal abscess management

A

incision and drainage- wound will heal in 3-4 weeks
Abx can be used, but only if there’s systemic upset

103
Q

Perianal fistula what is it- causes and risk factors

A

abnormal connection bwt anal canal and perianal skin
IBD
systemic disease
diabetes

104
Q

perianal fistula symptoms and signs

A

recurrent perianal abscesses
intermittent or continuous discharge onto the perineum, including mucus, blood, pus or faeces

105
Q

perianal fistula management

A

most common surgical methods used:
Fistulotomy- laying the tract open by cutting thru skin and subcut tissue, allowing it to heal by secondary intention

106
Q

chronic mesenteric ischaemia presentation

A

intermittent central colicky abdo pain after eating
weight loss

107
Q

chronic mesenteric ischaemia diagnosis management

A

CT angiography
reduce risk factors
secondary prevention eg statin antiplatelets
revascularisation- endovascular procedures first line (ie percutaneous mesenteric artery stenting)

108
Q

acute mesenteric ischaemia cause and risk factor

A

usually caused by a thrombous stuck in the artery/embolus, blocking blood flow.
AF is risk factor due to thromboembolism formation

109
Q

acute mesenteric ischaemia diagnosis and management

A

CT contrast, pts will have metabolic acidosis and raised lactate due to ischaemia
Pts require surgery to remove necrotic bowel, remove/bypass the thrombus in the blood vessel )open surgery or endovascular procedures may be used)