What is AKI
Kidneys perform various important tasks for body- removes waste products and toxins, controls fluid balance to make sure body isn’t overloaded w/ water or too dry and controls BP.
AKI means there’s dmg to the kidneys that affects its function. Ranges from minor loss of function to complete kidney failure
peeing less than usual
Not enough blood flow to kidneys eg due to low fluid due to diarrhoea and vomiting.
Direct dmg to the kidneys by meds - eg NSAIDs, diuretics etc, or other conditions
Blockage in urianry tract caused by prostate enlargement in males or maybe a kidney stone- leads to congestion of the kidneys.
AKI how to assess
assess kidney function short term by measuring creatinine- waste product of muscles in the blood, and also assess urine output
depends on cause and severity:
Increase water/fluid intake if dehydrated
Take abx if infection
stop taking certain meds (until problem is sorted)
Urinary catheter, a thin tube used to drain the bladder if there’s a blockage
Dialysis in severe cases- where a machine filters the blood to get rid of the waste, extra salt and water
Can go on to develop chronic kidney disease or long term kidney failure
High lvls of K+ in blood- leading to muscle weakness, paralysis and heart rhythm problems
Fluid in lungs (pulmonary oedema)
CKD what is it
Long term condition where kidneys are dmgd, so they don’t function properly
CKD signs and symptoms
based on eGFR
need at least an eGFR of < 60 or proteinuria for a diagnosis of CKD.
Lifestyle changes- reduce salt and fat intake. Maintain healthy diet, exercise regular and stop smoking
Meds to control BP and diabetes
renal bone disease
Glomerulonephritis what is it
Kidneys are partially dmgd and thus can’t function properly
Often caused by problem w/ immune system.
Sometimes caused by infections eg HIV
glomerulonephritis signs and symptoms
Joint pain leg swelling
HTN and hypercholesteroleaemia
CKD and kidney failure
lifestyle changes eg less salt in diet
Meds to lower BP (ACE-i)
leaflet about glomerulonephritis