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Medicine year 3 TCD > Kidney conditions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Kidney conditions Deck (17)
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1
Q

What is AKI

A

Kidneys perform various important tasks for body- removes waste products and toxins, controls fluid balance to make sure body isn’t overloaded w/ water or too dry and controls BP.
AKI means there’s dmg to the kidneys that affects its function. Ranges from minor loss of function to complete kidney failure

2
Q

AKI symptoms

A

feeling sick
diarrhoea
dehydration
peeing less than usual
confusion
drowsiness

3
Q

AKI causes

A

Not enough blood flow to kidneys eg due to low fluid due to diarrhoea and vomiting.
Direct dmg to the kidneys by meds - eg NSAIDs, diuretics etc, or other conditions
Blockage in urianry tract caused by prostate enlargement in males or maybe a kidney stone- leads to congestion of the kidneys.

4
Q

AKI how to assess

A

assess kidney function short term by measuring creatinine- waste product of muscles in the blood, and also assess urine output

5
Q

AKI treatment

A

depends on cause and severity:
Increase water/fluid intake if dehydrated
Take abx if infection
stop taking certain meds (until problem is sorted)
Urinary catheter, a thin tube used to drain the bladder if there’s a blockage
Dialysis in severe cases- where a machine filters the blood to get rid of the waste, extra salt and water
Provide leaflet

6
Q

AKI complications

A

Can go on to develop chronic kidney disease or long term kidney failure
High lvls of K+ in blood- leading to muscle weakness, paralysis and heart rhythm problems
Fluid in lungs (pulmonary oedema)

7
Q

CKD what is it

A

Long term condition where kidneys are dmgd, so they don’t function properly

8
Q

CKD causes

A

HTN
Diabetes
High cholesterol
NSAIDs

9
Q

CKD signs and symptoms

A

Fatigue
Swollen ankles
SoB
Feeling sick

10
Q

CKD stages

A

based on eGFR
need at least an eGFR of < 60 or proteinuria for a diagnosis of CKD.

11
Q

CKD management

A

Lifestyle changes- reduce salt and fat intake. Maintain healthy diet, exercise regular and stop smoking
Meds to control BP and diabetes
Dialysis
Kidney transplant

12
Q

CKD complications

A

kidney failure
Anaemia
Oedema
Hyperkalaemia
renal bone disease
CVD

13
Q

Glomerulonephritis what is it

A

Kidneys are partially dmgd and thus can’t function properly

14
Q

Glomerulonephritis causes

A

Often caused by problem w/ immune system.
Sometimes caused by infections eg HIV

15
Q

glomerulonephritis signs and symptoms

A

Rashes
Joint pain leg swelling
Tiredness

16
Q

glomerulonephritis complciations

A

HTN and hypercholesteroleaemia
CKD and kidney failure

17
Q

glomerulonephritis management

A

lifestyle changes eg less salt in diet
Meds to lower BP (ACE-i)
leaflet about glomerulonephritis