Abdominal Wall and Inguinal Regions Flashcards Preview

Week 8- SHANE > Abdominal Wall and Inguinal Regions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Abdominal Wall and Inguinal Regions Deck (40):
1

What causes accumulation of fluid deep to scarpa's membrane?

extravasation of urine (especially in males)

urine will flow down into the scrotum

2

The upper extent of the dome of the diaphragm is where?

The 4th intercostal space

That means that all of the liver, spleen, and pancreas are deep to and, hence, protected by ribs as is nearly all of the stomach.

3

Rectus Abdominus origin

pubic crest

4

Rectus Abdominus insertion

xiphoid process and costal margin

5

External abdominal oblique origin

lower 8 ribs

6

External abdominal oblique insertion

rectus sheath (linea alba)

7

Internal abdominal oblique origin

lateral 2/3 of inguinal ligament, iliac crest and thoracolumbar fascia

8

Internal abdominal oblique insertion

rectus sheath (linea alba)

9

Transverse abdominis origin

lower ribs, lateral 1/3 of inguinal ligament, iliac crest, and thoracolumbar fascia

10

Transverse abdominis insertion

rectus sheath (linea alba)

11

Innervation of all abdominal muscles

lower 6 intercostal, subcostal, iliohypogastric, and ilioinguinal NN.

12

does the rectus abdominus run deep or superficial to the rectus sheath?

deep

13

how do the fibers of the internal abdominal oblique run in relation to the fibers of the external abdominal oblique

perpendicular (external= hands in pockets)

14

Where is the semilunar line?

in the vertical junction between the abdominal muscles and the rectus sheath

aka the lateral margin of the rectus abdominis muscle

15

The lines that horizontally separate the rectus abdominis are called what?

tendinous intersections (aka the fibers of rectus abdominis are not continuous)

16

Where does the superior epigastric artery run?

just anterior to the posterior wall of the rectus sheath.

17

What forms the superior epigastric artery?

junction of two branches of internal thoracic

18

What forms the inferior epigastric artery?

from branch of external iliac artery

19

The junction of the superior and inferior epigastric arteries (thus connecting the internal thoracic arteries to the external iliac artery) provides what advantage?

collateral circulation in the case of occlusion (or stenoses) of the aorta

20

Which process is active: inspiration or exspiration?

inspiration. Abdominal muscles contract to force the diaphragm to move inferiorly to expand the chest cavity

21

Below the arcuate line, what are the structures posterior to the rectus abdominis?

just the transversals fascia (investing fascia of the abdomen), some fat, and the perineum

22

The transpyloric plane lies at the level of the disk between which vertebrae?

L1-L2

23

The transumbilical plane lies at the level of the disk between which vertebrae?

L3-L4

24

What is the inguinal ligament?

It is the developed inferior margin of the external abdominal oblique muscles and runs from the ASIS to the pubic tubercle(?)

25

What goes through the inguinal canal?

males- spermatic cord

females- ligamentum teres (round ligament)

These are both structures involved in the descent of the gonads. They originate from within the pelvis and begin deep to the transversalis fascia.

26

What forms the sides of the superficial ring?

branching of the external abdominal oblique into the lateral and medial crura

27

Where does the lateral crura go?

inferiorly to form part of the inguinal ligament

28

Where does the medial crura go?

to the linea abla

29

What forms the roof of the superficial ring?

intercrural fibers (the spermatic cord emerges from the superficial ring inferiorly)

30

Why do women have a much lower frequency of inguinal hernias than males?

the inguinal canals are much smaller and stronger due to the testis passing in men

31

Is an indirect hernia medial or lateral to the inferior epigastric artery?

lateral (a direct hernia is medial to it)

32

Notes on nerve course around the side of the body to the abdominal muscles

Posterior they begin just superficial to the transversus muscles, around the midaxillary line they pierce the internal oblique abdominals and then travel to the ventral side of the body in between internal and external abdominal oblique muscles

33

What is the deep inguinal ring?

the reflection of the transversalis fascia onto the spermatic cord/round ligament

34

What structures contribute to the posterior wall of the inguinal canal?

the conjoint tendon (also called the falx inquinalis), the transversalis fascia, and the inferior epigastric vessels

35

Where is the weak area of the inguinal canal?

aka Hesselbach's triangle

MEDIAL to the inferior epigastric vessels

this is where direct hernias occur because the posterior wall is just transversalis fascia

36

Do direct hernias occur medial or lateral to the inferior epigastric vessels?

medial

37

What is the tunica albuginea?

thick CT layer on the testis

38

What becomes the testicular vein?

pampininform veins that surround the vas deferens

39

What is the tunica vaginalis?

the serous covering of the testis. It is a pouch of serous membrane, derived from the processus vaginalis of the peritoneum, which in the fetus preceded the descent of the testis from the abdomen into the scrotum.

40

What innervates the cremaster muscles?

the genitofemoral nerve