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Flashcards in AC-Ch. 1 Tree Biology Deck (95)
1

Fine, fibrous roots to take up water and minerals. Most are within the top 12 inches of soil.

Absorbing roots

2

Bud arising from a place other than a leave axil or shoot tip, usually as a result of hormonal triggers.

Adventitious bud

3

Aboveground roots. Usually adventitious nature and sometimes having unique adaptive function.

Aerial roots

4

Plant seeds born in an ovary. Consist of two large groups: monocotyledons and Dicotyledons.

Angiosperms

5

Red or purple pigment responsible for those colors and some parts of trees and other plants.

Anthocyanin

6

Substance applied to the foliage of plants to reduce water loss.

Antitranspiant

7

Bud at the tip of a twig or shoot

Apical bub

8

Condition in which the terminal bud inhibits the growth and development of the lateral buds on the same stem formed during the same season

Apical dominance

9

Growing point at the tips of shoots and roots

Apical meristem

10

Free spaces in plant tissue. Includes cell walls and intracellular spaces.

Apoplasm

11

Plant hormones or substance that promotes or regulates the growth and development of plants. Produced at sites where cells are dividing, primarily in the shoot tips. Compounds may be synthetically produced

Auxin

12

Movement of water, minerals, or Photosynthates longitudinally within a tree

Axial transport

13

Bud in the axil of a leaf. Lateral bud.

Axiliary bud

14

Raised strip of bark at the top of a branch union, where the growth and expansion of the trunk or parent stem and adjoining branch push the bark into a ridge.

Branch Bark Ridge

15

Area were a branch joins another branch or trunk that is created by the overlapping vascular tissues from both the branch and the trunk. Typically enlarged at the base of the branch.

Branch collar

16

(One) small lateral or terminal protuberance on the stem of a plant that may developed into the flower or shoot. (Two) underdeveloped flower or shoot containing a meristematic growing point.

Bud

17

Roots in the trunk base that help support the tree and equalize mechanical stress.

Buttress roots

18

Thin layer of meristematic cells that give rise to the phloem and to the xylem, increasing stem and root diameter.

Cambium

19

Compound, combining carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen that is produced by plants as a result of photosynthesis.

Carbohydrate

20

Yellow, orange, or red pigment responsible for those colors in some parts of trees and other plants.

Carotenoid

21

Area at the base of the petiole where cellular breakdown needs to leave in fruit drop

Abscission zone

22

Complex carbohydrate found in cellular walls of the majority on the plants and algae and certain fungal

Cellulose

23

Green pigment of plants found in chloroplasts. Captures the energy of the sun and is essential and photosynthesis

Chlorophyll

24

Specialized organelle found in some cells. Site of photosynthesis

Chloroplast

25

Natural defense process in trees by which chemical and physical boundaries are created that act to limit the spread of disease and decay organisms.

Compartmentalization

26

Meristematic tissue from which the Corky, protective outer layer of bark is formed.

Cork cambium

27

Waxy layer outside of the epidermis of a leaf that reduces water loss and resists insect damage.

Cuticle

28

Plant hormone involved in cell division, leaf expansion, and other physiological processes. Compounds with cytokinin like activity may be synthetically produced.

Cytokinin

29

Tree or other plant that sheds all all of its leaves according to a genetically scheduled cycle has impacted by climate factors usually during the cold season and temperate zones.

Deciduous

30

Rounded or spreading growth habit of the tree crown

Decurrent

31

Process in the development of cells in which they become specialized for various functions

Differentiation

32

Pattern of wood development in which the vessels and vessel sizes are distributed evenly throughout the annual ring

Diffuse porous

33

In a period of dormancy

Dormant

34

Study of the relationships among organisms and other living and non living elements of their environment

Ecology

35

Arising from a latent adventitious bud (growth point)

Epicormic

36

Tree or other plant that does not shed all of its foliage annually

Evergreen

37

Tree growth habit characterized by a central leader and a pyramidal crown

Excurrent

38

Elongated tapering thick walled cell that provides strength to wood

Fiber

39

Large divided leaf structures found in palms and ferns

Fronds

40

Plant growth produced as a response to the force of gravity (roots), or negative, as in opposite the direction of gravity (shoots)

Geotropism

41

Rings of xylem that are visible in a cross section of the stem, branches and roots of some trees. In temperate zones the rings typically represent one year of growth and are sometimes referred to as annual rings

Growth rings

42

Pair of specialized cells that regulate the opening and closing of a stomate due to a change in water pressure within cells

Guard cells

43

Plants with exposed seeds usually within cones

Gymnosperm

44

Wood that is altered from sapwood and provides chemical defense against decay-causing organisms and continues to provide structural strength to the trunk. Some trees do not have this

Heartwood

45

Bark that becomes embedded in a crotch between branch and trunk or between codominant stems causes a weak structure

Included bark

46

Cluster of flowers

Inflorescence

47

Region of the stem between two successive nodes

Internode

48

Vegetative bud on the side of a stem

Lateral bud

49

Root that arises by cell division in the pericycle of the parent root and then penetrates the cortex and epidermis

Lateral root

50

Point of attachment of a leaf petiole to a stem

Leaf axil

51

Small opening in the bark that permits the exchange of gases

Lenticel

52

Organic substance that impregnates certain cell walls to thicken and strengthen the cell to reduce susceptibility to decay and pest damage

Lignin

53

Undifferentiated tissue in which active cell division takes place. Found in root tips, buds, cambium, cork cambium and latent buds

Meristem

54

Symbiotic association between certain fungi and the roots of a plant

Mycorrhizae

55

Slightly enlarged portion of a stem where leaves and buds arise

Node

56

Diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane from a region of higher water potential to a region of lower water potential

Osmosis

57

Thin walled living cells essential in photosynthesis, radial transport, energy storage and production of protective compounds

Parenchyma cells

58

The outer layers of tissue of woody roots and stems consisting of the cork cambium and the tissues produced by it

Periderm

59

Stalk or support axis of a leaf

Petiole

60

Plant vascular tissue that transports Photosynthates and growth regulators. Situated on the inside of bark just outside the cambium. Is bidirectional

Phloem

61

General term for the sugars and other carbohydrates produced during photosynthesis

Photosynthate

62

Process in green plants by which light energy is used to form glucose from water and carbon

Photosynthesis

63

Influence of light on the direction of plant growth. Tendency of plants to grow toward light.

Phototropism

64

Compound effective in small quantities that affects the growth and/or development of plants. May be naturally produced or synthetic

Plant growth regulator

65

Substance produced by a plant that in low concentrations affects physiological processes such as growth and development often at a distance from the substance point of origin

Plant hormone

66

Root and stem growth in length. Occurs at the apical meristems and lateral meristems of all vascular plants

Primary growth

67

Process of increasing plant numbers both sexually and asexually

Propagation

68

Lateral movement of substances perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the tree or stem

Radial transport

69

Parenchyma tissues that extend radially across the xylem and phloem of a tree and function in transport storage structural strength and defense

Ray

70

Natural boundry formed chemically within a tree to separate damaged wood from existing healthy wood. Important in the process of compartmentalization

Reaction zone

71

In plants process by which carbohydrates are converted into energy by using oxygen

Respiration

72

Pattern of wood development in which the large diameter vessels are concentrated in the earlywood

Ring porous

73

Area where the main roots join the plant stem usually at or near ground level. Root collar

Root crown

74

Region at the base of a palm stem where lateral roots emerge

Root initiation zone

75

Dense network of roots near the base of a palm

Root mat

76

Outer wood (xylem) that is active in longitudinal transport of water and minerals.

Sapwood

77

Increase in root and stem girth or diameter. Occurs at lateral meristems in some vascular plants such as dicots

Secondary growth

78

Long slender phloem cell in gymnosperms

Sieve cell

79

Specialized phloem cells involved in Photosynthate transport. Exist only in angiosperms

Sieve tube elements

80

Plant part that uses or stores more energy than it produces.

Sink

81

Downward growing roots that provide anchorage and take up water and minerals

Sinker roots

82

In physiology plant that produces carbohydrates. Mature leaves are these

Source

83

Small pores between two guard cells on the undersides of leaves and other green plant parts through which gases are exchanged and water loss is regulated

Stomata

84

Association of two different types of living organisms that is often but not always beneficial to each.

Symbiosis

85

Entire mass of protoplasm of all cells in a plant interconnected by plasmodesmata

Symplasm

86

Central, vertical root growing directly below the main stem or trunk that may or may not persist into plant maturity

Tap root

87

Region lying between the tropics and the poles that has relatively moderate temperatures

Temperate

88

Bud at the tip of a twig or shoot.

Terminal bud

89

Elongated, tapering xylem cell adapted for the support and transport of water and elements

Tracheid

90

Water vapor loss through the stomata of leaves

Transpiration

91

Tendency of growth or variation of a plant in response to an external stimulus such as gravity or light

Tropism

92

End to end, tubelike, water conducting cells in the xylem of angiosperms

Vessels

93

Main water and mineral conducting tissue in trees and other plants. Provides structural support. Arises inward from the cambium and becomes wood after lignifying. Unidirectional up only

Xylem

94

Name all the functions or the root system

Absorption, conduction, anchorage, storage & hormone production

95

Name the major layers of a tree from outside to inside in order

Bark phloem cambium xylem