Flashcards in AC-Ch. 1 Tree Biology Deck (95)
Fine, fibrous roots to take up water and minerals. Most are within the top 12 inches of soil.
Bud arising from a place other than a leave axil or shoot tip, usually as a result of hormonal triggers.
Aboveground roots. Usually adventitious nature and sometimes having unique adaptive function.
Plant seeds born in an ovary. Consist of two large groups: monocotyledons and Dicotyledons.
Red or purple pigment responsible for those colors and some parts of trees and other plants.
Substance applied to the foliage of plants to reduce water loss.
Bud at the tip of a twig or shoot
Condition in which the terminal bud inhibits the growth and development of the lateral buds on the same stem formed during the same season
Growing point at the tips of shoots and roots
Free spaces in plant tissue. Includes cell walls and intracellular spaces.
Plant hormones or substance that promotes or regulates the growth and development of plants. Produced at sites where cells are dividing, primarily in the shoot tips. Compounds may be synthetically produced
Movement of water, minerals, or Photosynthates longitudinally within a tree
Bud in the axil of a leaf. Lateral bud.
Raised strip of bark at the top of a branch union, where the growth and expansion of the trunk or parent stem and adjoining branch push the bark into a ridge.
Branch Bark Ridge
Area were a branch joins another branch or trunk that is created by the overlapping vascular tissues from both the branch and the trunk. Typically enlarged at the base of the branch.
(One) small lateral or terminal protuberance on the stem of a plant that may developed into the flower or shoot. (Two) underdeveloped flower or shoot containing a meristematic growing point.
Roots in the trunk base that help support the tree and equalize mechanical stress.
Thin layer of meristematic cells that give rise to the phloem and to the xylem, increasing stem and root diameter.
Compound, combining carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen that is produced by plants as a result of photosynthesis.
Yellow, orange, or red pigment responsible for those colors in some parts of trees and other plants.
Area at the base of the petiole where cellular breakdown needs to leave in fruit drop
Complex carbohydrate found in cellular walls of the majority on the plants and algae and certain fungal
Green pigment of plants found in chloroplasts. Captures the energy of the sun and is essential and photosynthesis
Specialized organelle found in some cells. Site of photosynthesis
Natural defense process in trees by which chemical and physical boundaries are created that act to limit the spread of disease and decay organisms.
Meristematic tissue from which the Corky, protective outer layer of bark is formed.
Waxy layer outside of the epidermis of a leaf that reduces water loss and resists insect damage.
Plant hormone involved in cell division, leaf expansion, and other physiological processes. Compounds with cytokinin like activity may be synthetically produced.
Tree or other plant that sheds all all of its leaves according to a genetically scheduled cycle has impacted by climate factors usually during the cold season and temperate zones.
Rounded or spreading growth habit of the tree crown
Process in the development of cells in which they become specialized for various functions
Pattern of wood development in which the vessels and vessel sizes are distributed evenly throughout the annual ring
In a period of dormancy
Study of the relationships among organisms and other living and non living elements of their environment
Arising from a latent adventitious bud (growth point)
Tree or other plant that does not shed all of its foliage annually
Tree growth habit characterized by a central leader and a pyramidal crown
Elongated tapering thick walled cell that provides strength to wood
Large divided leaf structures found in palms and ferns
Plant growth produced as a response to the force of gravity (roots), or negative, as in opposite the direction of gravity (shoots)
Rings of xylem that are visible in a cross section of the stem, branches and roots of some trees. In temperate zones the rings typically represent one year of growth and are sometimes referred to as annual rings
Pair of specialized cells that regulate the opening and closing of a stomate due to a change in water pressure within cells
Plants with exposed seeds usually within cones
Wood that is altered from sapwood and provides chemical defense against decay-causing organisms and continues to provide structural strength to the trunk. Some trees do not have this
Bark that becomes embedded in a crotch between branch and trunk or between codominant stems causes a weak structure
Cluster of flowers
Region of the stem between two successive nodes
Vegetative bud on the side of a stem
Root that arises by cell division in the pericycle of the parent root and then penetrates the cortex and epidermis
Point of attachment of a leaf petiole to a stem
Small opening in the bark that permits the exchange of gases
Organic substance that impregnates certain cell walls to thicken and strengthen the cell to reduce susceptibility to decay and pest damage
Undifferentiated tissue in which active cell division takes place. Found in root tips, buds, cambium, cork cambium and latent buds
Symbiotic association between certain fungi and the roots of a plant
Slightly enlarged portion of a stem where leaves and buds arise
Diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane from a region of higher water potential to a region of lower water potential
Thin walled living cells essential in photosynthesis, radial transport, energy storage and production of protective compounds
The outer layers of tissue of woody roots and stems consisting of the cork cambium and the tissues produced by it
Stalk or support axis of a leaf
Plant vascular tissue that transports Photosynthates and growth regulators. Situated on the inside of bark just outside the cambium. Is bidirectional
General term for the sugars and other carbohydrates produced during photosynthesis
Process in green plants by which light energy is used to form glucose from water and carbon
Influence of light on the direction of plant growth. Tendency of plants to grow toward light.
Compound effective in small quantities that affects the growth and/or development of plants. May be naturally produced or synthetic
Plant growth regulator
Substance produced by a plant that in low concentrations affects physiological processes such as growth and development often at a distance from the substance point of origin
Root and stem growth in length. Occurs at the apical meristems and lateral meristems of all vascular plants
Process of increasing plant numbers both sexually and asexually
Lateral movement of substances perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the tree or stem
Parenchyma tissues that extend radially across the xylem and phloem of a tree and function in transport storage structural strength and defense
Natural boundry formed chemically within a tree to separate damaged wood from existing healthy wood. Important in the process of compartmentalization
In plants process by which carbohydrates are converted into energy by using oxygen
Pattern of wood development in which the large diameter vessels are concentrated in the earlywood
Area where the main roots join the plant stem usually at or near ground level. Root collar
Region at the base of a palm stem where lateral roots emerge
Root initiation zone
Dense network of roots near the base of a palm
Outer wood (xylem) that is active in longitudinal transport of water and minerals.
Increase in root and stem girth or diameter. Occurs at lateral meristems in some vascular plants such as dicots
Long slender phloem cell in gymnosperms
Specialized phloem cells involved in Photosynthate transport. Exist only in angiosperms
Sieve tube elements
Plant part that uses or stores more energy than it produces.
Downward growing roots that provide anchorage and take up water and minerals
In physiology plant that produces carbohydrates. Mature leaves are these
Small pores between two guard cells on the undersides of leaves and other green plant parts through which gases are exchanged and water loss is regulated
Association of two different types of living organisms that is often but not always beneficial to each.
Entire mass of protoplasm of all cells in a plant interconnected by plasmodesmata
Central, vertical root growing directly below the main stem or trunk that may or may not persist into plant maturity
Region lying between the tropics and the poles that has relatively moderate temperatures
Bud at the tip of a twig or shoot.
Elongated, tapering xylem cell adapted for the support and transport of water and elements
Water vapor loss through the stomata of leaves
Tendency of growth or variation of a plant in response to an external stimulus such as gravity or light
End to end, tubelike, water conducting cells in the xylem of angiosperms
Main water and mineral conducting tissue in trees and other plants. Provides structural support. Arises inward from the cambium and becomes wood after lignifying. Unidirectional up only
Name all the functions or the root system
Absorption, conduction, anchorage, storage & hormone production