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Flashcards in AC Odds And Ends Deck (56)
1

Name the layers of a tree from outside to inside

Bark, phloem, cambium, xylem

2

List the levels of plant classification from broadest to narrowest

Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species epithet

3

Name the plant characteristics used to identify trees

Bark texture, leaves, flowers, fruit, seed, buds, leaf scars, scent, form or growth habit

4

Name all the possible layers of the bark from outside to inside

Cuticle, epidermis, cork cells, cork cambium, phelloderm, cortex.

5

Describe the O horizon

It is a thin layer of decomposing organic material

6

Describe the A horizon

Layer that contains most of the fine absorbing roots of trees and is very biologically active.

7

Describe the B horizon

It is a zone of accumulation where materials that have leached from the surface mix with soil particles from the lower parent material.

8

T/F negativity charged clay particles hold cations near their surface.

True

9

Name the benefits of using mulch around trees

Moderate temperature extremes, reduce competition from weeds, keep mowers away, maintain soil moisture, aesthetically pleasing

10

Name the health problems associated with flooding

Root suffocation/death, soil organisms killed, predisposition to other stress factors, root collar rot, tree prone to toppling, mineral toxicities

11

Name the functions of the root system.

Absorption, conduction, anchorage, storage, hormone production

12

List the defects that could be found on a rope

Cuts, excessive fraying, puffs, pulled or herniated fibers, abrasions, changes in diameter, discoloration, glazing

13

Before climbing a tree, a climber should inspect the tree for hazards such as

Broken limbs, electrical hazards, dead limbs, decay, splits.

14

Name pieces of personal protective equipment that are generally required for all tree workers

Hardhat, eye protection, hearing protection, leg protection, sturdy work boots

15

T/F a well-trained climber, in good condition, should be able to dodge the kickback of a chainsaw.

False

16

Generally, the depth of the felling notch should not exceed ___-___ of the diameter of the tree

One third

17

If a victim is not breathing, it is necessary to perform ________ ________

Artificial respiration

18

List the Allied professionals or groups that an urban Forrester should learn to communicate with

Urban planners, civil engineers, public work officials, government agencies, and the public

19

List some economic benefits of trees

Increase property values, increase tax base, attract visitors, deferred maintenance on materials

20

List environmental benefits of trees

Improve air quality, sequester carbon, cool the air through transpiration, provide habitat for wildlife, reduce stormwater runoff and soil erosion

21

List for types of data that are typically collected any tree inventory

Species, diameter, location, condition codes, maintenance codes.

22

Name five ways that trees can be adversely affected by construction

Root injury, soil compaction, injury to trunk or branches, grade change, excavation severing root system

23

What are the phases of land development

Site clearing demolition, rough grading, utility installation and grading, construction, and final grading and landscape installation

24

If the soil grade on a construction site is____, a large percentage of the trees roots system might be removed. If The Grade is___, The trees roots might be suffocated

Lowered, raised

25

List the three components of risk assessment

Potential for failure, potential target, environment that may contribute to failure

26

List five indicators of decay in a tree

Open wounds or cavities, fruiting bodies: mushrooms Conks, cracked or loosend Bark, certain inserts, birds bees and other animals

27

List for potential options for mitigating tree risk

Pruning, cabling, bracing, removal of the trees limbs

28

Plant resources, produced through photosynthesis, are allocated among four primary functions:

Growth, maintenance, storage, defense

29

What are the three pest management goals

Prevention eradication and suppression

30

Name five causes of physical or mechanical injuries two trees

Lawnmower/string trimmer, vandalism, construction, rodents, guy wires

31

Name some insect pests of trees with chewing mouthparts

Beatles, caterpillars, weevils, leaf miners, borers, webworms

32

Name some inserts with piercing or sucking mouthparts

Aphids, scale, leafhoppers, mealybugs, true bugs, and psyllids

33

Name the four factors required for a tree disease

Susceptible host, pathogenic organisms, suitable environment, proper timing

34

Fire blight is an example of a disease caused by a____

Bacterium

35

Name three instances in which cabling might be called for in a tree

Support a weak crotch, support for multi-stemmed tree, weak wooded tree

36

T/F the installation of metal cables, if done properly, will not wound the tree

false

37

Name three circumstances in which lightning protection for trees might be recommended

Historical, valuable, large trees in a populated area

38

The purpose of a lightning protection system is to

Conduct the electrical charge into the soil away from the tree

39

When cabling a multi-stemmed tree, extra support can be added to the system by

Cabling the limbs together in triangular combinations

40

Name the common reasons for removing limbs from trees

Dead, disease, hazardous, Crossing, thinning, weight reduction, size reduction, obstructing views or clearance

41

T/F Trees that tend to bleed should never be pruned in the early spring because doing so is likely to cause a major decline in vigor

False

42

T/F as a general rule, mature trees are less tolerant of severe pruning then juvenile trees

True

43

T/F even the removal of 25% of the canopy of a large, mature tree can be stressful to the tree

True

44

Three adverse effects of lion tailing are

Uneven foliage distribution, sunburned bark tissue, weakened branch structure

45

Three adverse affects of topping include

Excessive water sprout development, weak branch union, unnatural growth form

46

T/F research on wound dressings shows that there use prevents decay.

False

47

Name two ways plant growth regulators are used by arborist

Reduce growth and restrict sucker growth

48

To prune trees that flower on the previous years growth and maximize flowering, you should prune

Shortly after flowering

49

Name the adverse effects of staking or guying trees

Wounding of trunk or branches, girdling, less stable root development, uneven taper development

50

T/F in general, palms are easy to transplant

True

51

Name three site characteristics that must be considered in tree selection

Growing space, light conditions, soil conditions, climate, functional requirements

52

The climactic factor that determines hardiness zones is

Low temperature extremes

53

Name the limitations to trunk implants and microinjections

Limited to trees over 4 inches in diameter, not suited for addressing macronutrient deficiencies, resulting wounds limit ability to repeat applications

54

Name the advantages of drip irrigation

Reduces water waste and reduces surface compaction

55

Name the disadvantages of drip irrigation

Must be moved outward as root system expands and may become clogged

56

A_____ ____ Is a landscape feature specifically designed to collect and hold stormwater runoff

Rain garden