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Flashcards in Acid Base Deck (23)
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1

Normally blood pH

narrow range (7.35-7.45)

2

H+ is regulated sequentially by

1) Chemical Buffer system
2) Respiratory Center in the brainstem
3) Liver Oxidation of Strong Acids
4) Renal mechanisms – ultimate acid-base regulatory organs

3

What ions/molecules bind H+ when it is in excess?

phosphate, protein, bicarbonate

4

Respiratory center regulation of pH

short lived reaction: Plasma H+ increasing, metabolic acidosis→ deep breathing to expel more CO2. Plasma H+ decreasing, metabolic alkalosis→ results in slower, shallow breathing to expel CO2

5

Liver Oxidation regulation of pH

Eliminates acid by lactate oxidation and gluconeogenesis (both consume H+)

6

Renal mechanisms for pH regulation

delayed but long term/effective --> if acidic→ filter out H+ and reabsorb more bicarbonate

7

components of an arterial blood gas

1) pH of the blood
2) partial pressure of oxygen
3) partial pressure of CO2
4) Bicarbonate
5) O2 concentration and O2 saturation

8

Anion Gap

the difference between unmeasured plasma cations and anions that is used to distinguish different causes of Acidosis/Alkalosis

9

Equation for Anion Gap

Normal AG = Na+ - (Cl- + HCO3-)

10

Pregnancy corresponds to what Acid-Base Disorder?

Respiratory Alkalosis

11

Vomitting corresponds to what Acid-Base Disorder?

Metabolic Alkalosis

12

Diarrhea corresponds to what Acid-Base Disorder?

Metabolic Acidosis (non-gap)

13

Cirrhosis corresponds to what Acid-Base Disorder?

Respiratory Alkalosis

14

Respiratory alkalosis

pH: high
pCO2: low
HCO3: low
secondary to hyperventilation; increased expulsion of CO2, --> increase in blood pH (more basic).

15

Respiratory acidosis

pH: low
pCO2: high
HCO3: high
decreased respirations lead to decrease in pH as CO2 accumulates.

16

Metabolic alkalosis:

pH: high
pCO2: high
HCO3: high
the loss of hydrogen ions from the gastrointestinal tract or in the urine →high HCO3 concentration and pH. (Per lecture, “low urine chloride”).

17

Metabolic acidosis

pH: low
pCO2: low
HCO3: low
serum bicarbonate concentration (ie: Diabetic Ketoacidosis or diarrhea)

18

Mixed/compensatory

simultaneous presence of more than one acid-base disorder

19

Normal AG

12 +/- 2

20

Normal PCO2

40

21

Normal HCO2 (bicarbonate)

24

22

If pH is normal but serum HCO3 is low, this is indicative of?

Mixed acid-base disorder

23

COPD corresponds to what Acid-Base Disorder?

Respiratory Acidosis