HOMEOSTASIS—RENAL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in HOMEOSTASIS—RENAL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION Deck (86)
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1

cortex

outer portion of the kidney and vascular
-->which contains an arterial network, all of the glomeruli, a dense peritubular capillary plexus, and a venous drainage system.

2

medulla

inner kidney which receives much less blood than the cortex and contains the collecting ducts.

3

pyramids

medulla
cone-shaped
where urine is formed

4

minor/major calyces

helps form ureter
act as collecting cups for the urine formed in the pyramids.

5

renal pelvis

funnel for urine
through the minor and major calyces --> pelvis--> ureter --> bladder --> urethra

6

renal interstitium

lies between tubules and blood vessels; <10% of renal volume; contains fluid and scattered interstitial cells (fibroblasts and others) that synthesize an extracellular matrix of collagen, proteoglycans, and glycoproteins

7

Is the loop of Henle located in the medulla or cortex?

Medulla

8

Afferent arteriole

Blood supply to kidneys. Takes blood into the glomerulus to be filtered

9

Efferent arteriole

Takes blood away from the kidneys

10

Bowman’s capsule

surrounds glomerulus
Contains a parietal and a visceral layer of stellate cells that are called podocytes

11

Glomerulus

A cluster of capillaries that brings blood into the kidney for filtration

12

What forms the Juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA)?

distal convoluted tubule + the afferent arteriole= JGA

13

What is the function of the JGA?

Regulates blood pressure and the glomerulus filtration rate
distal convoluted tubule = epithelial Macula densa cells that detect sodium levels
afferent arteriole =specialized granular cells that secrete renin. Renin regulates blood pressure

14

What composes the convoluted tubule?

Proximal; Distal; thick and thin look of Henle

15

Where is most of the absorption occuring?

Proxmial convoluted tubule

16

What does the distal convoluted tubule mostly absorb?

Na

17

What is the Thick Ascending loop of Henle permable to?

Thick Ascending loop of Henle- Permeable to solute and not to water

18

What is the Thin Ascending loop of Henle permable to?

Thin descending loop of Henle- Permeable to water and not to solutes

19

Why is Thick Ascending loop of Henle signficant?

Critical role in creating an osmotic gradient and concentration of solute in urine

20

major excretory and non-excretory functions of the kidney

1) Regulation of Water and Electrolyte Balance
2) Excretion of Metabolic Waste
3) Excretion of Bioactive Substances That Affect Body Function
4) Regulation of Arterial Blood Pressure
5) Regulation of Red Blood Cell Production
6) Regulation of Vitamin D Production
7) Gluconeogenesis

21

What stimulates the bone marrow to increase its production of red blood cells ?

erythropoietin --> made in kidney

22

What types of molecules are easily filtered by the kidney? Difficult molecules to filter?

easy passage of small molecules

most proteins, large molecules and medium-large highly negatively charged particles more difficult.

23

Kidney Secretion

Molecules that do not filter through the glomerulus pass on into the efferent renal arteriole to the peritubular capillaries which surround the renal tubules. From there the molecule may be secreted into the tubular lumen where they are either excreted or reabsorbed.

24

Significance of the GFR equation

grading progression/improvement of chronic kidney disease and for dosing drugs which are primarily excreted via urine

low GFR= poor kidney function

25

Who has a higher TBW: males or females?

MALES: females typically have higher percentage of adipose tissue than males, they tend to have less body water
females= 55%
males 60% of body weight

26

How much of TBW is in ECF vs ICF?

1/3 TBW= ECF; 2/3 TBW=ICF

27

Intracellular fluid (ICF):

The water inside the cells in which all intracellular solutes are dissolved.

28

Extracellular fluid (ECF):

The water outside the cells.

29

Major cations in ICF =

Major cation in ECF = sodium (Na+)

30

Major anions in ECF =

Major anions in ECF = chloride (Cl-) and bicarbonate (HCO3-)