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Flashcards in Lab Medicine Deck (39)
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1

Accuracy

how closely the test results correspond to the true value or “gold standard.”

2

Precision

How reproduce-able the results are with repeat testing of the same specimen

3

Specificity

measures TN--> the percentage of persons WITHOUT the disease of interest with negative test results-->higher specificity of the test, the more likely it is that persons without the disease of interest will be excluded from consideration of having the disease

4

What kind of test is used to clinically rule IN the disease?

Specificity (SPIN)

5

T/F: The lower the specificity, the higher the chance of a false positive result

TRUE

6

Sensitivity

measures TP --> higher the sensitivity, the more likely to detect people WITH the dz

7

What is used to clinically to rule OUT the presence of the disease in an individual

Sensitivity (SNOUT)

8

Predictive value

Measures concerning to estimation of the probability of the presence or absence of disease.

9

Positive PV

percent of persons with a positive test result who DO HAVE the disease in question

10

Negative PV

percentage of persons with a negative test result who DO NOT HAVE the disease in question

11

False positive

lab testing that identifies abnormalities that are NOT present.

12

False negative

lab testing that fails to identify abnormalities that ARE present.

13

Prevalence

the proportion of a population found to have a condition (typically a disease or risk factor) at a particular time.

14

Likelihood Ratio

Probability of a result in a patient with or without disease

15

Negative LR

Probability of negative test in non-diseased person/ Probability of negative test in a diseased person

16

Pretest probability

the probability of the target disorder before a diagnostic test result is `known

17

Posttest probability

the probability of the presence of a condition (disease) after a diagnostic test.

18

Gold Standard

most accurate measure

19

Narrative result

descriptive values (ie: path report/ Chest Xray report)

20

five major reasons for ordering a laboratory measurement

1) Discover occult (not accompanied by readily discernible signs or symptoms) disease or recurrent disease
2) Confirm a suspected diagnosis
3) Differentiate among possible diagnoses
4) Determine the stage, activity, or severity of disease
5) Assess and monitor the effectiveness of therapy or treatment

21

Qualitative result

Yes/No or Positive/Negative (ie: pregnancy test, rapid strep)

22

Quantitative

Numerical

23

Reference Interval

range of “normal” values

24

T/F: 1 in 20 “normal” tests will have test results outside of the reference range.

TRUE

25

Basic Metabolic Profile (BMP):

common serum electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl-), carbon dioxide content, blood urea nitrogen, Ca++, creatinine, and glucose

26

Complete Metabolic Profile (CMP):

all BMP components plus albumin, alanine aminotransferease (ALT), aspartate aminotransferease (AST), total bilirubin, and total protein

27

erythrocyte sedimentation test

non-specific test; increases in ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate) = infection, inflammation, and plasma cell dyscrasias

28

spun hematocrit

percentage volume of blood that is composed of erythrocytes (RBCs)

29

STAT laboratory tests

needed immediately; given highest priority

30

pinworm prep

Test for the presence of pinworm eggs on the anus

Firmly press the sticky side of a strip of tape over the anal area for a few seconds. The eggs stick to the tape. The tape is then transferred to a glass slide, sticky side down, where it can be examined