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Flashcards in Acid Base Deck (15)
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1
Q

What is the normal pH range?

A

7.35-7.45

2
Q

How to calculate pH?

A

-log10[H+]

3
Q

What is base excess?

A

Acid needed to restore normal pH

4
Q

What is acidemia and alkalemia?

A

More acidic but normal range

More alkaline but normal range

5
Q

What is acidosis and alkalosis?

A

Acidic below normal

Alkaline above normal

6
Q

What is the anion gap?

A

The difference between measured anions (negative) and cations (positive)

7
Q

What is the anion gap equation?

Normal range?

A

[Na+] + [K+] - [Cl-] - [HCO3-]

10-16

8
Q

Where are urinary buffers found?

What are the main ones?

A

In the PCT
H2PO4
NH4+
Main=HCO3-

9
Q

What is respiratory acidosis?
Causes?
Consequences?

A

Fail to get rid of CO2
Decreased pH
Increased HCO3-
Increased CO2

Hyperventilation
COPD
Resp failure type 1 & 2
Hypoxia

10
Q

What is respiratory alkalosis?
Causes?
Consequences?

A

Too much CO2 lost in an increased pH as CO2 is lost
Increased pH
Decreased HCO3-
Decreased CO2

Hypoxia
Type 1 resp failure 

11
Q

What is metabolic acidosis?
Causes?
Consequences?

A

Excess acid production (intercalated cells release acid) resulting in decreased pH
Decreased pH
Decreased HCO3-
Decreased CO2

Non hypoxia
Renal failure

12
Q

What is metabolic alkalosis?
Causes?
Consequences?

A

Increase in pH
Increase pH
Increase HCO3-
increased CO2

Vomiting, hyperkalaemia

13
Q

The body buffer is….

A

CO2 + H2O —-> H2CO3 —-> H+ + HCO3-
CO2 - resp (in breathing)
H+ and HCO3- = metabolic (cycled round body)

14
Q

Can you have mixed acid/alkalosis?

A

Yes

15
Q

The conc of buffers molecules in acid/alkalosis depend on…

A

Driving factor = ensuring the change

Compensation = trying to restore the normal