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Fundamentals Part 2 > Acid/Base > Flashcards

Flashcards in Acid/Base Deck (31):
1

What does our body tend to move towards between acidosis and alkadosis

acidosis (as a result of ketone bodies, etc etc)

2

whats a normal range pH

7.35-7.45

3

What are the three main buffer systems in body

Bicarbonate, inorganic Phosphate, & Plasma Proteins (Albumin)

4

How would hyperventilation affect free Ca++

(Carpal pedal spasm) It would decrease H+ ion leaving Albumin with a negative charge more free to bind to Ca++ resulting in a lowered state of Ca++ (could lead to acute hypocalcemia)

5

How can we use Arterial Blood Gases (ABG's) to diagnosis & differentiate respiratory acid base disorders

pCO2 goes up by 10mm, pH will decrease by .1

6

what is a normal pCO2

40

7

If pCO2 is 50. what is their pH

7.3 (respiratory acidosis)

8

If pCO2 is at 30 with a normal level Bicarb (24) what is their pH

7.5 (respiratory alkadosis)

9

What would a higher than normal (24) Bicarb measure indicate:

metabolic alkadosis

10

What would a lower than normal Bicarb measure indicate:

metabolic acidosis

11

Pregnancy is a condition associated with what type of acid/base disorder

respiratory alkalosis

12

a metabolic acidosis will have what type of compensatory effort

respiratory alkalosis

13

What would you see on a ABG with partial compensatory respiratory alkadosis for metabolic acidosis

Low bicarb count, low pH, and lower pCO2

14

What would you see in a mixed acid/base acidosis on a ABG

High pCO2, low bicarb. low pH

15

Other ICF buffers:

Organic phosphates(ATP, adp, amp) & proteins such as hemoglobin

16

What is the anion gap used for

differentiate metabolic acidosis (too much extra acid or not enough bicarbonate)

17

How do you measure anion

cation concentration (Na+) vs. anion (HCO3- & Cl-)

18

what the normal range for an anion gap

8-16

19

What would an increase in the anion gap to say 24 incidate about the metabolic acidosis type

Extra acid is present

20

What are some examples of an extra free acid that would raise the anion gap

ketoacidosis in a diabetic, lactic acidosis, aspirin, methanol

21

What would a normal anion gap indicate about the type of metabolic acidosis

Not enough HCO3- hence the kidney tries to hold onto Cl- also known as (hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis)

22

examples of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis

diarrhea, pancreatic fistulae

23

what would a lower than normal anion gap

result of hypoalbuminemia

24

What are some examples of respiratory acidosis arising from problems in CNS

narcotics, ETOH, barbiturates, tumor, stroke, quadriplegia, head injury

25

COPD, Emphysema, Asthma, pneumonia, CHF, airway obstruction, pneumothorax are all examples of pulmonary disease states that would cause which type of acid/base disorder

respiratory acidosis because they are all hypoventilation

26

"Hypoventilation" causes what acid/base disorder

respiratory acidosis

27

Neuromuscular diseases such as tetanus, botulism, curare, organophosphate poisoning cause hypoventilation which is associated with what acid/base disorder

respiratory acidosis

28

anxiety which would result in hyperventilation would cause what acid/base disorder

respiratory alkalosis

29

HOw would your respiratory system try and respond to an aspirin overdose that causes metabolic acidosis

it would try and hyperventilate to rid the body of CO2, so a result would show either partial/full compensatory respiratory alkalosis (lowered CO2 than 40)

30

hyperventilation due to shock, hypoxia or high altitudes would be an example or cause for which acid/base disorder

respiratory alkalosis

31

Which system between respiratory and renal will be quicker to try and compensate to maintain normal pH in the body

respiratory by way of altering minute ventilation