Renal Flashcards Preview

Fundamentals Part 2 > Renal > Flashcards

Flashcards in Renal Deck (56):
1

How much of water makes up body weight

50-70%

2

How much of total body water content is intracellular?

2/3

3

How much of the total body water content is extracellular

1/3

4

what makes up the extracellular fluids?

Interstitial fluid, plasma

5

what percent of interstitial fluid makes up the extracellular content

3/4

6

what percent of plasma makes up the extracellular fluid

1/4

7

what's a major factor for the health of the individual cell health

ECF

8

what is the functional unit of the kidney

nephron

9

how many nephron units/kidney

1 million

10

what makes up the nephron

the glomerulus and renal tubules

11

what is the glomerulus made up of

capillary network surrounded by bowmans capsule

12

List the sequence of renal blood flow

afferent arterioles send blood to the glomerular capillaries(1st capillary network) then to efferent arteries to the peritubular capillaries (2nd) then to venous capillaries.

13

can you explain the unusual vascular arrangement in the nephron

arterioles enter and exit the Bowman's capsule to go through a two capillary bed system (series) with the peritubular capillary bed 2nd then to venous cap.

14

Why would a kidney transplant still show autoregulation btw 50-150

because there's no nerve innervation, so no sympathetic and parasympathetic control

15

whats erythropoietin

hormone secreted by kidneys that make RBC's

16

what is tuboglomerular feedback and what parts are involved

regulation of renal blood flow via juxtaglomerular apparatus & macula densa

17

Describe the ideal location of the juxtaglomerular apparatus

the juxtaglomerular cells & macula densa are closely associated with vacular pole of the nephron and the distal renal tubule to sense the GF composition and make adjustments to the arterioles

18

If overall blood flow to kidney is inadequate, what occurs

kidney releases large quantity of renin which will increase blood flow

19

whats the biggest cause for problems in the glomerular capillary membrane

Diabetes

20

what is nephrotic syndrome

leakage of very large amounts of protein from the glomerulus results in massive proteinuria

21

what is the result of nephrotic syndrome (pathophys)

edema and hypoproteinemia (low protein in blood)

22

creatinine clearance

measurement to assess GFR. serum creatinine is filtered by the glomerulus and filtrate concentrations are minimally altered by the tubules

23

what is a normal range of creatinine clearance

100-120

24

what would a creatinine clearance of around 60 indicate

loss of nephron units

25

what is inulin

a substance used to measure GFR because it can be completely filtered thru the glomerulus without being secreted nor reabsorbed

26

what is the fick principle

measurement of the GFR using serum concentration of inulin and urine concentration

27

where is Aldosterone produced/stored

adrenal gland

28

what directs the adrenal gland to produce/store aldosterone

pituitary gland

29

what controls the release of aldosterone

the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

30

what is aldosterone's main function

increase Na+ reabsorption late distal tubules and collecting ducts

31

what percent of cardiac output contributes to renal blood flow?

about 22% (1200 cc's/min)

32

In terms of Starling Forces, an increase in pressure within Bowman's capsule will have what affect on the GFR

it will decrease

33

what is one reason/example of how there could be an increase in pressure within Bowman's capsule

a urinary tract obstruction

34

Angiotensin II acts on:

constricting the efferent arteriole; increasing GFR but also increases reabsorptive forces for Na+ and H20 at peritubular capillaries

35

ADH:

antidiuretic hormone or vasopressin is a hormone from the posterior pituitary gland; increases h20 reabsorption during increased osmolarity (when body needs it, such as dehydration) vs. ECF/serum osmolarity low then ADH withheld and water excreted...

36

what is SIADH

syndrome of inappropriate secretion ADH ur body doesn't withhold ADH properly so too much fluid retention, lower NA+ serum

37

what senses the osmolarity in the body fluids and tells the pituitary to secrete ADH

hypothalamus

38

what does atrial natriuretic peptide ANP do

inhibits reabsorption of Na+, H20 (opposing the action of aldosterone)

39

what secretes ANP & why

cardiac arterial cells, when there's distension of atria ( too much preload)

40

what is the function of the parathyroid hormone

secreted in response to low serum Ca++ it increases renal reabsorption of Ca++ while phosphate reabsorption is decreased

41

how does the renal system contribute to acid base homeostasis

secrete and reabsorb HCO3- (bicarbonate) and excrete fixed acids such as NH4

42

what does renal hypoperfusion refer to

one of the 3 types of acute renal failure. When your body is hypovolemic caused by hemorrhage, GI fluid loss, or pancreatitis (3rd spacing)

43

what would cause post acute renal failure

calculi, tumors, and prostatic hypertrophy

44

what are some examples of intrinsic renal failure

atherosclerosis/blood clots, aortic aneurysm, glomerular disease, most commonly-acute tubular necrosis, others incude: myogloinuria, toxins, HTN, & interstitial nephritis

45

what is the time of onset in regards to acute renal failure

hours to days

46

what is the time of onset for chronic RF

months to years

47

what are some causes of CRF

Diabetes** HTN, obstruction, infection, a severe loss of nephrons

48

what would be a common manifestation of renal failure?

Oliguria (less than 400 ml/day.... a sign of decline in GFR

49

what are some signs/symptoms of CRF

uremia, hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis, anemia, osteoporosis, volume overload, peripheral neuropathy, anorexia, and endocrine disturbances.

50

what is the range of specific gravity of urine

from 1035 (extremely concentrated) to 1001 (dilue).

51

what is an isotonic specific gravity

SG of 1010 isotonic with normal serum osmolarity (295 mOsm/l)

52

what are some abnormal constituents in urine?

glucose, protein, hematuria (RBC or hemoglobin), WBC's, crystals, casts (indicates glomerulus bleeding) and bilirubin

53

How would you prevent ARF

proper hydration, treatment of Strep infections, caution with nephrotoxic drugs

54

Prevention for CRF

aggressive tx Diabetics, control HTN, adequate tx strep.

55

How is diabetes insipid us caused:

ADH is withheld so u have extreme thirst & pee out lots of dilute urine

56

About what % nephrons lost b4 see rise in creatinine level from .8-1.4

About 70%, hence y u can function with only one kidney