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GASTRO-INTESTINAL MEDICINE AND HEPATOLOGY > ACUTE ABDOMEN > Flashcards

Flashcards in ACUTE ABDOMEN Deck (27):
1

What are the differential diagnoses for right upper hypochondrium pain?

Cholecystitis
Ascending Cholangitis
Biliary Colic
Hepatitis
Duodenal ulcer
Basal pneumonia
Choledocholithiasis

2

What are the four main causes of hepatitis?

NASH
Alcohol
Viral
Toxins (eg Paracetamol)

3

What is the triad associated with ascending cholangitis?

Charcot:

Spiking fever
Rigors
Jaundice

4

What is biliary colic?

Biliary colic is the term used to describe a type of pain related to the gallbladder that occurs when a gallstone transiently obstructs the cystic duct and the gallbladder contracts.

5

How might you differentiate cholecystitis in an acute abdomen from something like ascending cholangitis or choledocholithiasis?

Murphy's sign - get patient to breath out. Place hand under rib cage in mid-clavicular line and then get patient to breath in. A positive sign is if the patient 'catches' with pain as they breath out. A positive sign is associated with cholecystitis.

6

What is ascending cholangitis?

An infection of the bile duct (cholangitis), usually caused by bacteria ascending from its junction with the duodenum (first part of the small intestine). It tends to occur if the bile duct is already partially obstructed by gallstones.

7

What will blood tests in someone with ascending cholangitis show?

Raised ALP
Raised bilirubin

8

How is someone with ascending cholangitis treated?

Fluids
Broad spectrum antibiotics and those that can target gram negative bacteria - cephalosporins, metranidazole, aminoglycosides (gentamicin)
ERCP
Cholecystectomy

9

What is choledocholithiasis?

A gall stone anywhere between the exit of the gall bladder and the ampullae (the biliary tree).

10

What might precipitate biliary colic?

Eating fatty foods

11

How long does a classic bout of biliary colic last?

Can be 5-10 minutes but often lasts more than 30 mins.

12

Where does biliary colic pain radiate?

Radiates to the back and shoulder and across the epigastrium.

13

What is cholelithiasis?

Gallstones in the gall bladder

14

Is fever associated with biliary colic?

No.

15

What do blood tests in someone with biliary colic show?

Normal ranges for LFTs.

16

What is the treatment for biliary colic?

Often only symptomatic relief unless there is evidence of underlying liver damage.

17

What is cholecystitis?

Inflammation of the gallbladder most often caused by cholelithiasis.

18

What are the common symptoms of cholecystitis?

Persistent sharp pain
Sudden onset
Radiating to shoulder
Worse on inspiration
Fever
Nausea/vomiting
Loss of appetite

19

How is cholecystitis treated?

Broad spectrum antibiotics if infection is suspected
Fluid
Cholecystectomy to prevent recurrence and complications

20

What are the risk factors for cholecystitis and gallstones?

Female
Old age
Pregnancy
Oral contraceptives
Obesity
Diabetes mellitus
Ethnicity (Native North American)
Rapid weight loss

21

What are the possible complications associated with cholecystitis?

Gangrene
Gallbladder rupture
Empyema
Fistula formation
Gallstone ileus
Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses
Too much calcium in the gallbladder will increase the risk of cancer

22

What will blood tests of someone with cholecystitis show?

Raised CRP
Normal or very mildly raised bilirubin (if too high an additional or alternative diagnosis should be sought)
Raised WCC
Mildly abnormal liver tests

23

What investigations would you do in someone suspected of having cholecystitis?

Blood tests
Ultrasound

Other imaging includes: X-ray, MRI or CT

24

What are most gallstones made of?

Cholesterol

25

What are black gallstones?

Bile pigment

26

Which gallstones show up on x-ray?

Black gallstones

27

What are the differential diagnoses for right iliac fossa pain?

Ovaries:
Ruptured ovarian cyst
Ruptured ectopic pregnancy
Torsion in ovary
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
Retrograde menstruation (into peritoneum)

Intestine:
Appendicitis
Diverticular disease
Crohns
Hernia
Meckel's diverticulum
Terminal ileitis

Renal:
Pyelonephritis
Renal calculi