GASTRITIS Flashcards Preview

GASTRO-INTESTINAL MEDICINE AND HEPATOLOGY > GASTRITIS > Flashcards

Flashcards in GASTRITIS Deck (23):
1

Define gastritis.

Inflammatory condition of the stomach resulting from damage to gastric mucosa.

2

What type of glandular cells are found in the wall of the body of the stomach?

Parietal
Chief

3

What type of glandular cells are found in the wall of the antrum of the stomach?

Mucin producing cells

4

How might someone with suspected acute gastritis present?

Dyspepsia (indigestion)
Heartburn
Nausea
Vomiting
Epigastric pain

Severe:
Haematemesis
Melaena

5

What is the pathophysiology of gastritis?

Reduced protection of mucosa or direct epithelial damage
Acid diffusion
Infiltration of neutrophils
Oedema and congestion

6

What are some of the risk factors for gastritis?

Alcohol
Smoking
NSAIDs including aspirin
Chemotherapy
H. pylori
HSV
CMV (cytomegalovirus)
Trauma, burns

7

What are the complications of gastritis?

Erosion and haemorrage
Ischemia
Necrosis
Ulceration
Perforation
Shock
Death

8

What is chronic gastritis?

Sustained inflammatory response to gastric mucosal damage.

9

What are the immediate complications of chronic gastritis?

Intestinal metaplasia
Glandular atrophy

10

What is the system most commonly used to classify gastritis?

Updated Sydney system

11

What are the three components of the Sydney System for classifying gastritis?

Aetiology
Topography
Morphology

12

What are the non-infectious aetiological causes of gastritis?

Autoimmune - (including pernicious anaemia)
NSAIDs
Alcohol
Bile reflux
Chemotherapy
Radiation
Allergy to gluten
Foreign Bodies
Crohn’s disease
Systemic diseases

13

What are the infectious aetiological causes of gastritis?

Helicobacter pylori
Helicobacter heilmannii
Treponema pallidum
Micobacteria

CMV
Herpes virus

Candida
Histoplasma capsulatum
Giardia lamblia
Cryptosporidium
Strongyloides stercoralis
Anisakidae

14

What are the three topographical locations for classifying gastritis?

Antral
Body
Pangastritis

15

What percentage of the population are colonised by H. pylori?

Up to 80%

16

What virulent proteins do some strains of H. pylori have, which makes them more likely to cause gastritis and gastric ulcers and also cancer?

CagA
VacA

17

What is autoimmune gastritis?

Chronic gastritis as a result of autoantibodies against the gastrin receptor, ATPase and intrinsic factor (pernicious anaemia), leading to atrophy of the stomach.

18

What are the complications of autoimmune gastritis?

Achlorhydria
Pernicious anaemia
Adenocarcinoma
Carcinoid

19

What other hereditary diseases is autoimmune gastritis associated with?

Hashimoto thyroiditis
Type I diabetes mellitus
Addison disease
Primary hypoparathyroidism
Graves disease
Myasthenia gravis
Lambert-Eaton syndrome

20

What are most of the signs and symptoms of autoimmune gastritis attributable to?

The vitamin B12 defiency

21

How does the body respond to the drop in acid production in autoimmune gastritis?

Increased production and secretion of gastrin leading to hypergastrinemia.

22

What cells continue to be stimulated by the excessive levels of gastrin in the blood in a patient with autoimmune gastritis? What happens as a result?

Enterochromaffin-like cells (ECL)
Hyperplasia of these cells

23

What type of gastric tumour is particularly associated with chronic gastritis involving H. pylori?

MALT lymphoma