Adolescence Flashcards Preview

Y2 LCRS 2 - RDA > Adolescence > Flashcards

Flashcards in Adolescence Deck (24):
1

Define adolescence

Early 11-14
middle 14-17
late 18+

2

What are the main physical changes in puberty?

Girls - breast budding, growth of pubic hair, growth spurt, menarche, underarm hair, change in body shape

Boys - growth of scrotum and testes, change in voice, lengthening of penis, growth of pubic hair, growth spurt (later than girls), change in body shape, growth of facial and underarm hair

3

Define puberty

process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction

4

what are the main endocrine factors associated with puberty?

Testosterone and oestradiol

Neurokinin B and kisspeptin - switches on GnRH

IGF1 - growth

Leptin

Before puberty, the hypothalamus and pituitary are very sensitive to negative feedback signals from testosteron and oestrogen. During puberty, this decreases

5

What are the normal ages of puberty?

Girls - 8-17
Boys - 9-18

6

What are the changes in the inset of puberty since mid-19th centruy?

Age of onset lowering

drop of 4 months every decade

7

Define menarche and adrenarche

menarche - onset of first menstrual cycle

Adrenarche - prior to onset of puberty, increase in androgen production, age 6-10

8

What are the main psychological changes in adolescence?

Identity vs confusion

Abstract thinking, personal moral compass

9

What are the main areas of normal social development in adolescence?

More formal groups of friends formed

Friendships - empathic stage - share common interests, make active attempts to understand each other, share personal info, respond sensitively

10

What are the main features of anorexia nervosa?

Deliberate weight loss, induced and sustained by a dread of fatness and flabbiness - overvalued idea

Patients impose a low weight threshold on themselves

Body weight is 15% below BMI

Pre-pubertal patients may not go through puberty well

Amenorrhoea
loss of libido

HIGHEST MORTALITY RATE of any psychiatric disorder

11

What are the range of mood disorders?

Depression
Bipolar affective disorder
Psychotic depression
mixed anxiety and depression

12

What are the main features of conduct disorder?

persistent failure to control behaviour appropriately within socially defined rules

- defiance against authority
- aggressiveness
- antisocial behaviour

13

What are the risk factors for anorexia?

psychological - depression, anxiety, low self esteem, perfectionism

social - higher social class, profession, media, culture

biological - genetic, hormones

external - childhood abuse, dieting, life events

14

In what group of people is anorexia most common in?

most common in adolescent girls and women up to menopause

15

What are the symptoms of anorexia?

restricted diet
excessive exercise
induced vomiting
use of diuretics or appetite suppressants

16

What are the treatments available for anorexia?

psychological - family therapy, cognitive behavioural therapy

Physical - hospital admin, nasogastric tube feed

17

What is depression?

can be single symptom or cluster

symptoms persist for at least 2 weeks
irritability

Increased rate of depression in girls from mid/late adolescence

18

Is there a familial link for depression?

Yes

19

What's is the treatment for mild depression?

Support and stress reduction, non-specific counselling

20

What is the treatment for moderate depression?

3 step plan

support/ stress reduction
cognitive behavioural therpy
medication

21

What is the treatment for severe depression?

Combo from start

May last for 6-9 months

22

What is conduct disorder associated with?

More in males
lower socioeconomic class
large family size

23

What could be the cause of conduct disorder?

immediate environment - parents, sexual abuse

wider environment - school, others

24

What is the treatment for conduct disorder?

Child-focused: behaviour modification, problem-solving skills training

Family-focused:
- family counselling
- social work
- parent management training