Pregnancy Flashcards Preview

Y2 LCRS 2 - RDA > Pregnancy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pregnancy Deck (24):
1

What are the features and risks of the first trimester?

0-13 weeks

Very risky

If you pass this, then 90% reach term

2

What are features and risks of second trimester?

13-27 weeks

3

What is the point of viability?

Modern technology - 22 weeks

50% chance of survival at 25 weeks

4

What are the features and risks of third trimester?

up to 39/40 weeks

5

What are the maternal changes associated with pregnancy?

Increased weight - more so in 2nd and 3rd

Increased/altered hormones - HCG (peaks in first trimester) , increased oestrogen and progesteron, HPL

Increased blood clotting

Decreased blood pressure

Increased basal body temp

Increased breast size

Increased vaginal mucus secretion (clear)

Increased nausea and vomiting

Altered brain function

Altered apetite

Altered fluid balance and urinary frequency

Altered emotional state

Altered joints

Altered immune system

6

What may cause nausea and vomiting?

Correlated with high level of HCG so may be causative link

7

What are the key kidney changes in pregnancy?

Increased fluid retention and higher plasma volume

pass smaller volumes of urine more frequently

8

What may cause the altered immune response in pregnancy?

1. factors produced to suppress immune system e.g. decrease Th1 and Th2 response

2. placenta expressed unusal HLA on surface that is in contact with maternal tissues - HLA-G

9

What does embryo mean?

the baby up to 8 weeks of development

10

What timing is used by gynaecologists?

Last menstrual period

11

What timing is used by embryologists?

IVF

Point of fertilisation

2 weeks difference from LMP

12

In which trimester does the baby gain the most weight?

3rd trimester
2nd
1st

13

What develops late in pregnancy?

lungs, digestive system, immune system, brain (continous)

14

What are the functions of the placenta?

1. exchange of nutrients
2. connection (anchorage)
3. Separation
4. Biosynthesis
5. Immunoregulation

15

What is the primary subunit of placenta?

Placental villus

16

What is different about the vascular system in placenta?

Arteries - deoxygenated blood

Veins - oxygenated blood

because it acts as lungs for the foetus

17

Where does the placenta develop from?

Syncytiotrophoblast cells contain lacunae

18

Describe the development of placenta

Cytotrophoblast cells proliferate

First columanr structure formed (cytotrophoblast column) then branching

At the centre of each villus, mesenchymal cells - villus vascualr system develops from here

19

How does the placenta change by term

Fewer cytotrophoblasts

Maximise efficacy of nutrient transfer

20

What provides the nutrients to placenta and baby in first trimester?

Decidual glands

21

What are the spiral arteries blocked by?

Cytotrophoblast cells

22

When does the cytotrophoblast plug break down?

10-12 weeks GA

Risky time frames as placenta is not fully anchored

23

What is the remodelling of spiral arteries?

By cytotrophoblasts

vascular endothelium, smooth muscle cells replaced

widens the spiral arteries to support growing baby

begins during first trimester and finishes until 16-18 weeks of gestation

24

What regulated the growth of the placenta?

autocrine - produces own GF

Maternal decidua - restricts growth