How is adolescence defined according to age?
Adolescents: 10-19 yo
Youth: 15-24 yo
Young people: 10-24 yo
How are the stages of adolsecence defined according to age?
Early: 10-14 yo
Middle: 15-16 yo
Late: 17+ yo
How can adolescence be defined other than by age?
Onset of puberty until achievement of economic independence
List some of the developmental tasks of adolescence?
Achieving independence from parents/other adults
Development of a realistic, stable, positive self-identity
Formation of a sexual identity
Negotiating peer and intimate relationships
Development of a realistic body image
Formulation of own moral/value system
Acquisition of skills for future economic indepedence
What are the three major domains within which development occurs in adolescence?
Describe the physical development that occurs in adolescence?
Puberty: rapid physical growth, reproductive capabilities, secondary sexual characteristics
Describe the peer relationships of adolescents?
How do they differ from middle childhood?
Occupy more time than in middle childhood
Basis for friendships changes (more about shared interests, values, etc)
Involve same and opposite sex
First romantic/sexual relationship
Increased reliance on friends for support
Close and supportive frinedships contribute to positive psychological adjustment
Describe the family relationships of adolescents?
How do they differ to middle childhood?
Strive for increased autonomy
Increased parent-child conflict
Better adolescent adjustment with authoritative adjustment style
What do adolescents consult parents vs peers for advice about?
Peers: what to wear, which interests to pursue, which social activities to attend
Parents: academic/occupational goals, other future-oriented decisions
Describe some of the cognitive development that occurs in adolescents?
Thinking about possibilities
Thinking through hypotheses
Thinking about thought
Thinking beyond conventional limits
List some of the factors which contribute to the development of self-identity in adolescence?
How does the self-concept change during adolescence?
Incorporate psychological terms into self-descriptions
Describe attributes in a variety of domains
Recognition of 'different selves' across contexts
Describe the brain development that is occurring in adolesence?
What implications does this have?
Notable developments in PFC controlling executive functions
Implications for management of emotions and behaviour
What are the 'Big 6 Risks' for adolescent health?
In which population are these risks greater?
Risky sexual behaviours
Inadequate physical activity
Greater risks in males than females
What is the leading cause of death among 12-24 year olds?
Predominantly transport accidents or suicide
Which group of illnesses have a common onset during adolescence?
Mental health difficulties: eating disorders, substance abuse, depression, suicide
What is the estimated prevalence of chronic illness among adolescents?
How might chronic illness affect the achievement of developmental tasks during adolescence?
Why is adherence to treatment often a problem with adolescents?
Point of difference to peers
Don't like being told what to do
Don't want to be dependent on medication
Which factors may contribute to poorer adherence to treatment in adolescents?
Less disease-related knowledge
Poorer problem solving skills
Regimes that impact on appearance or social inetractions or that require major lifestyle adjustments
Poorer psychological functioning