Describe the borders of the anterior and posterior neck?
Anterior: inferior border of mandible down to manubrium
Posterior: superior nuchal line down to C7/T1 disc
What are the four fascial layers of the neck?
Give a general description of the fascial layers of the neck?
4 longitudinal compartments each contained within layers of cervical fascia
Describe the superificial fascial layer of the neck?
Contains a thin sheet of muscle called platysma
Blends with facial muscles and shares their nerve supply
Describe the superficial veins of the neck?
Include their course and structures that they drain.
EJV and AJV
EJV begins at angle of mandible, vertical descent on sternocleidomastoid
Together, drain superifical muscles of neck
What is contained within the visceral fascial layer of the neck?
Thyroid, parathyroid and thymus glands
Also relates to trachea and oesophagus
What is contained within the vascular fascial layer?
Cartoid sheath and contents
What is contained within the vertebral fascial layer?
Cervical vertebrae and postural muscles
Where is the investing fascia located?
What does it contain?
Deep to superificial fascia
Surrounds all layers
Splits to enclose sternocleidomastoid and trapezius
Where is the prevertebral fascia loacted?
What does it contain?
Cylinder surrounding vertebral compartment
Contains vertebrae and postural muscles
Where is the pretracheal fascia located?
What does it contain?
Comprises pretracheal and buccopharyngeal fascia
Preatracheal fascia extends up to hyoid bone
Together surround visceral compartment
What is the significance of the pretracheal fascia connecting to the hyoid bone superiorly?
Hyoid bone moves up and down with swallowing > anything within pretracheal fascia will also move up and down with swallowing
What is the significance of the fascial layers of the neck in terms of communication?
Spaces between fascial layers can communicate up as well as down to medistinum
Allows unrestricted spread of infection
Describe the contents of the carotid sheath?
Common carotid artery/just afetr bifurcation
Describe the borders of the anterior triangle of the neck?
In front of sternocleidomastoid
Below inferior border of mandible
To one side of midline of neck (two anterior triangles: right and left)
Describe the borders of the posterior triangle of the neck?
In front of trapezius
Above middle third of clavicle
Describe the contents of the anterior triangle of the neck?
Anterior vertebral muscles
Veins of neck
Glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory and hypoglossal nerves
What do the anterior vertebral muscles consist of?
Suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscles
Describe the suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscles?
Suprahyoid: connect hyoid bone to skull, constitute floor of mouth, elevate hyoid and larynx
Infrahyoid: anchor hyoid bone down to sternum/clavicle/scapula, depress hyoid or larynx
In which fascial layer do the anterior verebral muscles lie?
Between investing fascia and pretracheal fascia
Describe the actions of the anterior vertebral muscles?
Steady or move hyoid bone and larynx
Describe the innervation of the anterior vertebral muscles?
Anterior rami of cervical nerves
At which level in the neck does the common carotid artery bifurcate?
C3/4 (upper border of thyroid cartilage)
Describe the braches of the internal carotid artery in the neck?
No branches in neck
Describe the branches of the external carotid artery in the neck?
Three off the front: superior thyroid artery, lingual artery, facial artery
Two off the back: occipital artery, posterior auricular artery
One deep: ascending pharyngeal artery
What do each of the branches of the external carotid artery in the neck supply?
Superior thyroid artery: turns downards to supply superior thyroid artery from above
Lingual artery: tongue
Facial artery: face
Occipital and posterior auricular arteries: close off vascular supply to face and scalp
Ascending pharyngeal artery: supplies deeper structures associated with pharynx and larynx
Which cranial nerves enter the anterior triangle?
Those that exit via jugular and hypoglossal formaminae
Describe the pathway of the glossopharyngeal, vagus and spinal accessory nerves into the anterior triangle?
CN IX: goes forwards to oropharynx
CN X: goes downwards, descending in carotid sheath
CN XI: goes backwards, through or beneath sternocleidomastoid into posterior triangle
Describe the pathway of the hypoglossal nerve in the anterior triangle of the neck?
Passes forwards between arterial and venous structures
Describe the structure and location of the thyroid gland?
2 lobes and isthmus, enclosed by pretracheal fascia
Between upper border of thyroid cartilage and 6th tracheal ring