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Flashcards in Regions of the neck Deck (43)
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1

Describe the borders of the anterior and posterior neck?

Anterior: inferior border of mandible down to manubrium

Posterior: superior nuchal line down to C7/T1 disc

2

 What are the four fascial layers of the neck?

Superficial fascia

Visceral fascia

Vascular fascia

Vertebral fascia 

3

Give a general description of the fascial layers of the neck?

4 longitudinal compartments each contained within layers of cervical fascia

4

Describe the superificial fascial layer of the neck?

Contains a thin sheet of muscle called platysma

Blends with facial muscles and shares their nerve supply 

Contains EJV 

5

Describe the superficial veins of the neck?

Include their course and structures that they drain.

EJV and AJV

EJV begins at angle of mandible, vertical descent on sternocleidomastoid

Together, drain superifical muscles of neck

6

What is contained within the visceral fascial layer of the neck?

Thyroid, parathyroid and thymus glands 

Also relates to trachea and oesophagus 

7

What is contained within the vascular fascial layer?

Cartoid sheath and contents 

8

What is contained within the vertebral fascial layer?

Cervical vertebrae and postural muscles 

9

Where is the investing fascia located?

What does it contain?

Deep to superificial fascia

Surrounds all layers

Splits to enclose sternocleidomastoid and trapezius 

10

Where is the prevertebral fascia loacted?

What does it contain?

Cylinder surrounding vertebral compartment 

Contains vertebrae and postural muscles 

11

Where is the pretracheal fascia located?

What does it contain?

Comprises pretracheal and buccopharyngeal fascia

Preatracheal fascia extends up to hyoid bone 

Together surround visceral compartment 

12

What is the significance of the pretracheal fascia connecting to the hyoid bone superiorly?

Hyoid bone moves up and down with swallowing > anything within pretracheal fascia will also move up and down with swallowing 

13

What is the significance of the fascial layers of the neck in terms of communication?

Spaces between fascial layers can communicate up as well as down to medistinum

Allows unrestricted spread of infection 

14

Describe the contents of the carotid sheath?

Common carotid artery/just afetr bifurcation

IJV

CN X

15

Describe the borders of the anterior triangle of the neck?

In front of sternocleidomastoid

Below inferior border of mandible

To one side of midline of neck (two anterior triangles: right and left)

16

Describe the borders of the posterior triangle of the neck?

Behind sternocleidomastoid

In front of trapezius

Above middle third of clavicle 

17

Describe the contents of the anterior triangle of the neck?

Anterior vertebral muscles

Carotid system

Veins of neck

Glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory and hypoglossal nerves

Thyroid gland 

18

What do the anterior vertebral muscles consist of?

Suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscles 

19

Describe the suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscles?

Suprahyoid: connect hyoid bone to skull, constitute floor of mouth, elevate hyoid and larynx

Infrahyoid: anchor hyoid bone down to sternum/clavicle/scapula, depress hyoid or larynx 

20

In which fascial layer do the anterior verebral muscles lie?

Between investing fascia and pretracheal fascia 

21

Describe the actions of the anterior vertebral muscles?

Steady or move hyoid bone and larynx

Suprahyoid: elevates

Infrahyoid: depresses 

22

Describe the innervation of the anterior vertebral muscles?

Anterior rami of cervical nerves 

23

At which level in the neck does the common carotid artery bifurcate?

C3/4 (upper border of thyroid cartilage)

24

Describe the braches of the internal carotid artery in the neck?

No branches in neck

25

Describe the branches of the external carotid artery in the neck?

Six branches

Three off the front: superior thyroid artery, lingual artery, facial artery

Two off the back: occipital artery, posterior auricular artery

One deep: ascending pharyngeal artery

26

What do each of the branches of the external carotid artery in the neck supply?

Superior thyroid artery: turns downards to supply superior thyroid artery from above

Lingual artery: tongue

Facial artery: face

Occipital and posterior auricular arteries: close off vascular supply to face and scalp

Ascending pharyngeal artery: supplies deeper structures associated with pharynx and larynx 

27

Which cranial nerves enter the anterior triangle?

9-12

Those that exit via jugular and hypoglossal formaminae

28

Describe the pathway of the glossopharyngeal, vagus and spinal accessory nerves into the anterior triangle?

CN IX: goes forwards to oropharynx

CN X: goes downwards, descending in carotid sheath

CN XI: goes backwards, through or beneath sternocleidomastoid into posterior triangle  

29

Describe the pathway of the hypoglossal nerve in the anterior triangle of the neck?

Passes forwards between arterial and venous structures 

30

Describe the structure and location of the thyroid gland?

2 lobes and isthmus, enclosed by pretracheal fascia

Between upper border of thyroid cartilage and 6th tracheal ring