The processes that drive the origins and course of individual behaviour and adaptation throughout the life course
Which factors must be considered when determining whether or not behaviour is normal/abnormal?
Is the behaviour appropriate for age and for context?
Apart from abnormal behaviour, which other types of behaviour can be concerning during development?
Across which domains does development occur in childhood?
Social and emotional
Describe some of the development that occurs in the physical domain in childhood?
Gross motor skills
Fine motor skills
Physical changes associated with puberty
Describe some of the developmental changes that occur across the domain of cognition during childhood?
Describe some of the development that occurs across the social domain during childhood?
Development in cognition allows for new ways of understanding self and others, and reasoning about moral dilemmas
Changes in nature of social interactions (eg. family to peers)
Describe some of the developmental changes that occur across the emotional domain during childhood?
Changes in emotional language, knowledge, recognition and regulation
May have emotional difficulties (eg. difficulty feeding/sleeping/settling)
Describe how the presentation of a disease can vary during childhood?
Same disorder may present differently at different ages
Describe some of the risk factors which influence childhood development?
Harsh or inconsistent parenting
Other trauma exposure
Single parent family
Parental mental health
Describe some of the protective factors that influence child development?
Positive stable relationship with an adult other than parents
Describe the risks associated with inadequate understanding of disease in childhood?
Impact on adherence
Describe the long-term effect that illness during childhood may have on development?
Can interfere with achievement of normative developmental tasks
Describe some of the difficulties associated with treating infants and toddlers?
Motor and sensory exploration prominent
Limitations in verbal expression
Struggle with logical explanations
Focus on 'here and now'
Limited understanding of illness
Early experiences influence susequent coping
Descirbe some of the considerations that must be taken into account when treating preschoolers?
Thinking is relatively literal, concrete, egocentric
Developments in independence, curiosity, language
Literal interpretation may lead to misinterpretation
Struggle with analogies and hypotheticals
Like to have choices
Illness understood as contagion/contamination
May attricute cause to something that co-occurred temporally
Magical thinking common
Describe some of the considerations that must be taken into account when treating children in primary school?
Developments in logical thinking and abstract reasoning
Understand causes of disease beyond contagion
Peers of increasing importance
Simple analogies and hypothetical examples can be understood
Describe some of the considerations that must be taken into account when treating adolescents?
More advanced reasoning and problem solving skills
Regulation of emotion and behaviour still developing
Peers and identity formation
Illness understood in terms of: organs and their functions, disease processes/mechanisms, role of own behaviours in causing/preventing illness, physical and psychological aspects of illness
Describe some of the factors that must be taken into account when communicating in paediatric contexts?
Consider developmental factors
Children are not just little adults
Children communicate in many different ways, often non-verbally
Describe some communication strategies that can be employed when working in a paediatric setting?
Developmentally appropriate, unambiguous language
Check understanding by allowing opportunities for questions
Reduce threat-related language
Honesty whilst prompting coping
Provide choices within limits
Use of visual aids and concrete referents