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Flashcards in Infant and childhood development Deck (20)
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1

Define development?

The processes that drive the origins and course of individual behaviour and adaptation throughout the life course 

2

Which factors must be considered when determining whether or not behaviour is normal/abnormal?

Is the behaviour appropriate for age and for context?

3

Apart from abnormal behaviour, which other types of behaviour can be concerning during development?

Unproblematic behaviour 

4

Across which domains does development occur in childhood?

Physical

Cognitive

Social and emotional

5

Describe some of the development that occurs in the physical domain in childhood?

Physical growth

Gross motor skills

Fine motor skills

Physical changes associated with puberty

Health/illness

6

Describe some of the developmental changes that occur across the domain of cognition during childhood?

Language

Knowledge

Memory

Reasoning

Planning

7

Describe some of the development that occurs across the social domain during childhood?

Development in cognition allows for new ways of understanding self and others, and reasoning about moral dilemmas

Changes in nature of social interactions (eg. family to peers)

8

Describe some of the developmental changes that occur across the emotional domain during childhood?

Changes in emotional language, knowledge, recognition and regulation

May have emotional difficulties (eg. difficulty feeding/sleeping/settling)

9

Describe how the presentation of a disease can vary during childhood?

Same disorder may present differently at different ages  

10

Describe some of the risk factors which influence childhood development?

Poverty

Harsh or inconsistent parenting

Family violence

Other trauma exposure

Single parent family

Parental mental health

11

Describe some of the protective factors that influence child development?

Easy temperament 

Positive stable relationship with an adult other than parents

High intelligence

Positive parenting 

12

Describe the risks associated with inadequate understanding of disease in childhood?

Increased anxiety

Impact on adherence 

13

Describe the long-term effect that illness during childhood may have on development?

Can interfere with achievement of normative developmental tasks

14

Describe some of the difficulties associated with treating infants and toddlers?

Motor and sensory exploration prominent

Limitations in verbal expression

Struggle with logical explanations

Focus on 'here and now'

Limited understanding of illness

Early experiences influence susequent coping

15

Descirbe some of the considerations that must be taken into account when treating preschoolers?

Thinking is relatively literal, concrete, egocentric

Developments in independence, curiosity, language

Literal interpretation may lead to misinterpretation 

Struggle with analogies and hypotheticals

Like to have choices

Illness understood as contagion/contamination

May attricute cause to something that co-occurred temporally

Magical thinking common

16

Describe some of the considerations that must be taken into account when treating children in primary school?

Developments in logical thinking and abstract reasoning

Understand causes of disease beyond contagion

Peers of increasing importance

Simple analogies and hypothetical examples can be understood

17

Describe some of the considerations that must be taken into account when treating adolescents?

More advanced reasoning and problem solving skills

Regulation of emotion and behaviour still developing 

Peers and identity formation 

Illness understood in terms of: organs and their functions, disease processes/mechanisms, role of own behaviours in causing/preventing illness, physical and psychological aspects of illness

18

Describe some of the factors that must be taken into account when communicating in paediatric contexts?

Consider developmental factors

Children are not just little adults

Children communicate in many different ways, often non-verbally 

19

Describe some communication strategies that can be employed when working in a paediatric setting?

Developmentally appropriate, unambiguous language

Check understanding by allowing opportunities for questions

Reduce threat-related language

Honesty whilst prompting coping

Provide choices within limits

Use of visual aids and concrete referents

20