Describe the bones and cartilages present in the anterior neck?
Describe the bones and cartilages present in the posterior neck?
What can happen to the cartilages in the neck with age?
When are the bones and cartilages of the neck susceptible to injury?
Manual forces applied to neck
Describe the five neck regions?
1 Back of neck/vertebral region
2 Posterior triangle
3 Sternomastoid region
4 Anterior triangle
5 Root of the neck
What does the posterior triangle of the neck transmit?
Structures to the upper limb and back
What does the root of the neck transmit structures to?
Where does the anterior triangle of the neck transmit structures to?
Describe the shape of the cervical spine?
Why is it this shape?
Lordosis (inward curvature)
Due to shape and size of IV discs
Maintained by postvertebral muscles, which extend the head on the neck and extend the cervical spine
Describe a typical cervical vertebra?
Transverse mass with anterior and posterior tubercles
Transverse foraminae (between anterior and posterior tubercles)
Bifid spinous process
Long spinous process
Unicnate process (C3-C6)
Articular surfaces oriented at 45 degress
Describe the purpose of bifid spinous processes in cervical vertebrae?
Increased surface area for several muscles and ligaments that attch at this location
How can vertebrae be counted externally?
Use C7 (vertebra prominens) as landmark
Describe the purpose of uncinate processes on C3-C6?
Keeps majority of movements in sagittal plane
Describe the lateral vertebral muscles?
Scalenus anterior, scalenus medius and scalenus posterior
Located deep to prevertebral fascia
Describe the attachments of the scalenus muscles?
Attach to transverse processes (anterior and posterior tubercles)
Describe the importance of scalenus anterior?
Key landmark in neck
Scalenus medius behind (arises from posterior tubercles)
Subclavian artery and brachail plexus lie between scalenus anterior in front and scalenus medius behind
Phrenic nerve sits on scalenus anterior
Where are the prevertebral muscles located?
Deep to prevertebral fascia
Describe some of the variations of the vertebral column that may occur?
Cranial or caudal shift > cervical or lumbar ribs
Describe the consequences of a cervical rib?
Lower trunk (C8/T1) coming up from thorax and may be irritated/compressed/trapped by rib
Describe the atlas?
No body (ring of bone)
Anterior and posterior arches
Facet for dens (anterior arch)
Facet for occipital condyles
Longest transverse processes
Describe the axis?
Dens (odontoid process)
Surfaces on dens for articulation with anterior arch of atlas
Strong spinous process
Describe the spinal cord and nerves within the cervical spine?
Nerve roots short and horizontal
C1 and C2 nerve roots pass behind facet joints
Below C2, nerve roots pass between facet joint and transverse foramen
Describe the effects of ageing on the cervical vertebrae?
Osteophytic outgrowths can develop
Involve facet region and region where unicinate process is
Osteophytes can migrate towards transverse foramen and area of nerve root
What is the significance of the anterior tubercle of C6?
Separates common carotid from vertebral artery
How are the vertebral arteries transmitted in the neck?
Transverse foraminae C6-C1
Where is the point of bifurcation of the common carotid artery?
Describe the IV discs of the cervical spine?
Relatively largest in body
Describe the role of the IV discs in the cervical spine?
Form cervical lordosis
Prevent forward slip and limit rotation
What is the joint between C1 and the skull called?
What is the joint between C1 and C2 called?