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Flashcards in Bones and joints of the neck Deck (47)
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1

Describe the bones and cartilages present in the anterior neck?

Hyoid bone

Thyroid cartilage

Cricoid cartilage

Tracheal cartilage 

2

Describe the bones and cartilages present in the posterior neck?

Atlas (C1)

Axis (C2)

C3-7

3

What can happen to the cartilages in the neck with age?

Ossification 

4

When are the bones and cartilages of the neck susceptible to injury?

Manual forces applied to neck

Manual strangulation 

5

Describe the five neck regions?

1 Back of neck/vertebral region

2 Posterior triangle

3 Sternomastoid region

4 Anterior triangle

5 Root of the neck

6

What does the posterior triangle of the neck transmit?

Structures to the upper limb and back

7

What does the root of the neck transmit structures to?

Thorax

8

Where does the anterior triangle of the neck transmit structures to?

Head

9

Describe the shape of the cervical spine?

Why is it this shape?

Lordosis (inward curvature)

Due to shape and size of IV discs 

Maintained by postvertebral muscles, which extend the head on the neck and extend the cervical spine 

 

10

Describe a typical cervical vertebra?

Body

Transverse mass with anterior and posterior tubercles 

Transverse foraminae (between anterior and posterior tubercles)

Bifid spinous process

Long spinous process

IV foramen

Unicnate process (C3-C6)

Articular surfaces oriented at 45 degress

11

Describe the purpose of bifid spinous processes in cervical vertebrae?

Increased surface area for several muscles and ligaments that attch at this location 

12

How can vertebrae be counted externally?

Use C7 (vertebra prominens) as landmark

13

Describe the purpose of uncinate processes on C3-C6?

Keeps majority of movements in sagittal plane

14

Describe the lateral vertebral muscles?

SCALENES

Scalenus anterior, scalenus medius and scalenus posterior

Located deep to prevertebral fascia 

15

Describe the attachments of the scalenus muscles?

Attach to transverse processes (anterior and posterior tubercles)

16

Describe the importance of scalenus anterior?

Key landmark in neck

Scalenus medius behind (arises from posterior tubercles)

Subclavian artery and brachail plexus lie between scalenus anterior in front and scalenus medius behind 

Phrenic nerve sits on scalenus anterior 

17

Where are the prevertebral muscles located?

Deep to prevertebral fascia 

18

Describe some of the variations of the vertebral column that may occur?

Cranial or caudal shift > cervical or lumbar ribs 

 

19

Describe the consequences of a cervical rib? 

Nerve entrapment

Lower trunk (C8/T1) coming up from thorax and may be irritated/compressed/trapped by rib

20

Describe the atlas?

No body (ring of bone)

Anterior and posterior arches

Facet for dens (anterior arch)

Facet for occipital condyles

Longest transverse processes 

 

 

21

Describe the axis?

Dens (odontoid process)

Surfaces on dens for articulation with anterior arch of atlas

Strong spinous process

22

Describe the spinal cord and nerves within the cervical spine?

Nerve roots short and horizontal

C1 and C2 nerve roots pass behind facet joints 

Below C2, nerve roots pass between facet joint and transverse foramen 

23

Describe the effects of ageing on the cervical vertebrae?

Osteophytic outgrowths can develop

Involve facet region and region where unicinate process is 

Osteophytes can migrate towards transverse foramen and area of nerve root

24

What is the significance of the anterior tubercle of C6?

Carotid tubercle

Separates common carotid from vertebral artery 

25

How are the vertebral arteries transmitted in the neck?

Transverse foraminae C6-C1

26

Where is the point of bifurcation of the common carotid artery?

C4 vertebra

27

Describe the IV discs of the cervical spine?

Relatively largest in body

28

Describe the role of the IV discs in the cervical spine?

Form cervical lordosis

Prevent forward slip and limit rotation 

29

What is the joint between C1 and the skull called?

Atlanto-occipital joint

30

What is the joint between C1 and C2 called?

Atlanto-axial joint