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Flashcards in Advance pathpharm week 6 REVISED Deck (73)
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This disease results in inflammation of the pericardium; causes include idiopathic origin, infection, radiation, uremia, and fibrous lesions:



Infective Endocarditis is:

infection of the endocardium; central venous catheterization, valve surgery, IV drug use


This is a disease in which permanent heart damage that leads to scarring and deformities of cardiac structures occurs as a result of rheumatic fever; RF is caused by delayed immune response to infection by group A beta-hemolytic streptococci

Rheumatic Heart Disease


What is Valvular Stenosis?

narrowed valve orifice that impedes bloodflow; d/t inflammation, congenital defect, or degeneration thickening and calcification


__________________ occurs when valve leaflets fail to close completely allowing leaking and backflow of blood; caused by rheumatic fever, endocarditis, syphilis, hypertension, connective tissue disorders (e.g., Marfan syndrome). and atherosclerosis

Valvular Regurgitation


What is Mitral Valve Prolapse?

displacement of an abnormally thickened mitral valve leaflet into the left atrium during systole; causes include genetics and physical damage.


_____________ happens when all four chambers are dilated; causes include MI, CAD, valvular disease, diabetes, drugs (cocaine, amphetamines, doxorubicin, daunorubicin)

Dilated Cardiomyopathy


______________ refers to thickening of the myocardium; cause is usually unknown, can be attributed to genetics and prolonged HTN

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy


What is Restrictive Cardiomyopathy and what causes it?

myocardium is infiltrated with substances (deposits of protein, iron, cells); causes include cardiac amyloidosis, hemochromatosis, and sarcoidosis.


Define Atrial septal defect:

opening in the dividing wall between the right and left atria.


An______________allows oxygen-rich (red) blood to pass from the left atrium, through the opening in the septum, and then mix with oxygen-poor (blue) blood in the right atrium.

atrial septal defect


T or F: Atrial septal defects are usually easy to dectect because the patient will be very symptomatic.

FALSE. Atrial septal defects are usually asymptomatic.


Fatigue, poor growth, and tachypnea are all symptoms of:

atrial septal defects


Is an artial septal defect cyanotic or acyanotic?

acyanotic-oxygenated blood mixes with deoxygenated blood and is sent to the lungs to be oxygenated again-will not cause cyanosis in the body because the body is still getting oxygen


Define Ventricular Septal Defect:

opening in the wall dividing the right and left ventricles.


A _______________allows oxygen-rich (red) blood to pass from the left ventricle, through the opening in the septum, and then mix with oxygen-poor (blue) blood in the right ventricle.

ventricular septal defect


If not treated, this heart defect can cause lung disease:

ventricular septal defect


How does a ventricular septal defect cause lung disease?

When blood passes through the VSD from the left ventricle to the right ventricle, a larger volume of blood than normal must be handled by the right side of the heart. Extra blood then passes through the pulmonary artery into the lungs, causing higher pressure than normal in the blood vessels in the lungs. The lungs are able to cope with this extra pressure for while, depending on exactly how high the pressure is. After a while, however, the blood vessels in the lungs become diseased by the extra pressure.


Is a ventricular septal defect cyanotic or acyanotic?

Acyanotic because the body is receiving oxygenated blood, just an abnormal volume of oxygenated blood.


A bluish tint to the skin, lips and fingernails, Swelling (edema) in your legs, ankles and feet, and Tires easily when eating or playing are all symptoms of:

ventricular septal defect


T or F: The ductus arteriosus is a normal fetal structure, allowing blood to bypass circulation to the lungs.



How does a Patent Ductus Arteriosus occur?

The high levels of oxygen which a baby is exposed to after birth causes the ductus arteriosus to close in most cases within 24 hours. When it doesn’t close, it is termed a Patent Ductus Arteriosus.


How does a Patent Ductus Arteriosus affect hemodynamics?

A patent ductus arteriosis creates an opening between the aorta and pulmonary arteries-oxygenated blood from the aorta is pushed back into the pulmonary arteries to go to the lungs. This creates an abnormal blood volume in the lungs, L artium, and L ventricle.


Is a patent ductus arteriosis cyanotic or acyanotic?

Acyanotic since the body is still receiving oxygenated blood from the L ventricle


T or F: A small PDA may cause no signs or symptoms, and may go undetected for some time, even until adulthood.



Sweating with crying or eating, Persistent fast breathing or breathlessness, Easy tiring, Rapid heart rate, A bluish or dusky skin tone are all symptoms of:

Patent ductus arteriosis


Define Transposition of the Great Vessel:

the aorta is connected to the right ventricle, and the pulmonary artery is connected to the left ventricle - the exact opposite of a normal heart's anatomy.


Describe the route of blood flow when transposition of the great vessel has occurred:

Oxygen-poor (blue) blood returns to the right atrium from the body, passes through the right atrium and ventricle, then goes into the misconnected aorta back to the body. Oxygen-rich (red) blood returns to the left atrium from the lungs, passes through the left atrium and ventricle, then goes into the pulmonary artery and back to the lungs. Two separate circuits are formed - one that circulates oxygen-poor (blue) blood from the body back to the body, and another that recirculates oxygen-rich (red) blood from the lungs back to the lungs.


T or F: Transposition of the great vessel is compatible with life.

FALSE. Surgery must be done to correct the issue.


Is transposition of the great vessel cyanotic or acyanotic?

Cyanotic since the body is receiving deoxygenated blood.