Flashcards in week 9 part 1 neuro Deck (65)
Define Cord concussion:
Results in a temporary disruption of cord-mediated functions
Define Cord contusion:
Bruising of the neural tissue causing swelling and temporary loss of cord-mediated function
Define Cord compression:
Pressure on the cord causing ischemia to tissues; must be relieved (decompression) to prevent permanent damage to the spinal cord
Define Laceration as it results to spinal cord injuries:
Tearing of the neural tissues of the spinal cord; may be reversible if only slight damage is sustained by the neural tissues; may result in permanent loss of cord-mediated functions if spinal tracts are disrupted
Define Transection as it relates to spinal cord injuries:
Severing of the spinal cord, causing permanent loss of function
When all tracts in the spinal cord completely disrupted; all cord-mediated functions below the transection are completely and permanently lost this is defined as:
A complete transection
When some tracts in the spinal cord remain intact, together with functions mediated by these tracts; has the potential for recovery although function is temporarily lost this is defined as:
When there is some demonstrable sensation below the level of injury this is defined as:
A transection with preserved sensation only
When preserved motor function without useful purpose; sensory function may or may not be preserved this is defined as:
Transection with preserved motor nonfunctional
When a spinal injury occurs with preserved voluntary motor function that is functionally useful this is defined as:
Preserved motor functional
Define hemorrhage as it relates to spinal cord injuries:
Bleeding into the neural tissue because of blood vessel damage; usually no major loss of function
Damage or obstruction of spinal blood supply causes:
T or F: All forms of injury can cause spinal cord edema, further decreasing blood flow and oxygenation.
Direct compression of neural elements by bone fragments, disc material, and ligaments damages (the CNS, PNS or both)?
both the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Loss of autoregulation and spinal shock cause_______________________________
systemic hypotension and exacerbate ischemia
T or F: All motor, sensory, reflex, and autonomic functions cease below any transected area and may cease below concussive, contused, compressed, or ischemic areas.
Loss of motor and sensory function depends on________________
the level of injury.
The result of this type of spinal cord injury is absent motor function, sensory, and pressured (“touch”) sensation and position and vibratory perception to all body areas innervated by the spinal cord tissue below the level of disruption.
A complete injury
This type of injury results in spinal cord injury can be defined as one in which there is a variable degree of loss of function secondary to partial cord disruption of the spinal cord (some pathways of neurological function are intact, some are disrupted either permanently or transiently).
An incomplete injury
Define Central Cord Syndrome:
Type of injury that results from hyperextension
______________ is Characterized by disproportionately greater motor impairment of the upper than the lower extremities with variable sensory loss below the level of injury, and central hemorrhagic necrosis and swelling
central cord syndrome
Define Sacral Sparing:
Important determinants of an incomplete lesion of the spinal cord are preservation of voluntary rectal sphincter tone and perianal sensation
____________ is a type of injury that results from hyperflexion
Anterior Cord Syndrome
This type of injury is characterized by variable loss of motor and sensory function below the level of injury, posterior column function is maintained. Patient will present with a variable degree, perhaps even complete loss of motor and sensory function below the level of injury to the spinal cord, but the ability to perceive light touch and position sense distal to the injury is maintained.
Anterior Cord Syndrome
This injury is typically the result of a penetrating injury which has damaged one side of the cord and is characterized by motor loss on the same side and sensory loss on the opposite side of the injury.
Brown Sequard Syndrome
T or F: Damage to the spinal cord can affect the area corresponding to the dermatomes but not the area below it.
FALSE. Damage to the spinal cord can affect the area corresponding to the dermatomes and the area below it.
What will happen if cervical spinal nerves are damaged?
cervical spinal nerves affect the head, arms, and hands, so these areas of the body will be affected
What will happen if the thoracic spinal nerves are damaged?
the thoracic spinal nerves affect the chest and abdominal region of the body
What will happen if lumbar spinal nerves are damaged?
lumbar spinal nerves generally innervates the legs-damage to this region of the body