Flashcards in Patho Test 1 Week 3 Flashcards Deck (80)
Why is the human body a hospitable site for bacteria to grow and flourish?
Because of its sufficient nutrients and appropriate condition of temp and humidity
What is a symbiotic relationship?
Both humans and microorganisms benefit
What is an example of a symbiotic relationship?
Normal flora of the human gut are provided nutrients from food and in exchange produce enzymes that facilitate digestion and use of more complex molecules found in the human diet, provide antibacterial factors that prevent colonization by pathogenic microorganisms, and produce usable metabolites (vit k)
What are possible strategies of microbial treatment to limit antibiotic resistant strains?
consistent, proper hand hygiene, maintenance of a clean environment, use of barrier where appropriate, and prompt identification of patients at high risk of colonization with transmissible microorganisms.
What is the prevention strategy for the US to address emerging infections?
Surveillance & response, applied research, Prevention and Control, and Infrastructure
What is the role of surveillance and response ?
detect promptly, investigate, and monitor emerging pathogens, the disease they cause, and the factors influencing their emergence
What is the role of applied research?
integrate lab science and epidemiology to optimize public health practice
What is the role of prevention and control?
enhance communication of public health info about merging diseases and ensure prompt implementation of prevention strategies
What is the role of infrastructure?
strengthen local, state, and federal public health infrastructures to support surveillance and implement prevention and control programs
Give examples of emerging infections
West Nile Virus, SARS, Influenza, Hanta Virus, Resistant Microbes, and Influenza A/H1N1 - 2009
When and where did WNV emerge?
NY in 1999
WNV has moved from NY to _____?
almost all of the continental U.S., 7 Canadian provinces, and throughout Mexico and parts of the Caribbean
What is the etiology of WNV?
infected mosquito & infected bird, transfusions, transplants, maternal-child. Not through touch (contact) or airborne
True or False, most people with WNV are asymptomatic ?
TRUE, 70 to 80% are asymptomatic
What are the clinical presentations of WNV?
Fever, headache, fatigue, skin rash on trunk, swollen lymph glands, and eye pain
What are the 3 severe forms of the WNV?
West Nile (WN) Meningitis, WN Encephalitis, WN Poliomyelitis
When the CNS is affected, what are 2 clinical presentations?
febrile headache and encephalitis
What does SARS stand for?
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
Describe the impact that SARS has had locally and globally
originated in Southern China in end of 2002, crossed into Hong Kong in Feb 2003. In days, it lead to Viet Nam, Singapore, Canada, Germany, and beyond. Nov 2002 to July 2003, more than 8,098 SARS cases, 774 deaths in 26 countries ( majority in the Western Pacific)
What are the clinical Presentations of SARS?
high fever, headache, discomfort, body aches, mild respiratory symptoms at outset, diarrhea, a dry cough, and pneumonia
What are the 3 types of Influenza?
Seasonal/ Common flu, Avian Influenza (or bird) flu (AI),and Pandemic Influenza
Describe the difference between Seasonal and Pandemic Influenza
Season flu is a resp. illness that can be transmitted person to person. Most people have some immunity and a vaccine is readily available. Pandemic influenza is a virulent flu that causes a global outbreak/pandemic of serious illness. Because there is little natural immunity, the disease can spread easily from person to person
What is the Avian Influenza caused by?
it is caused by influenza viruses that occur naturally among wild birds
True or False, low pathogenic AI is deadly to domestic fowl and humans
False, Highly pathogenic is deadly, whereas Low pathogenic AI is common in birds and causes few problems
Which subtype of AI are healthcare providers most concerned with and why?
H5N1 b/c its virulent, is being spread by migratory birds, can be transmitted from birds to mammals & humans, and the virus continues to evolve. Since 2003, there have been numerous cases reported, but no human to human contact YET.
What are the clinical presentations of Avian Influenza?
fever, cough, sore throat, muscle aches, eye infections, pneumonia, acute respiratory distress, viral pneumonia
What is another name for Hanta Virus?
Hanta Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)
What is HPS and how is it contracted?
HPS is a potentially deadly disease transmitted by infected rodents through urine, droppings, or saliva. Humans can contract the disease when they breathe in the aerosolized virus
Describe the impact Hanta Virus has had locally and globally
First recognized in 1993 and has since been identified throughout the U.S. Outbreaks of hantaviral disease have been associated with changes in rodent pop. densities, which may vary across time, both seasonally and from year to year