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Flashcards in Adverse effects RR Deck (114):
1

Severe local vesicant action and tissue necrosis upon extravasation

Doxo/daunorubicin Dacarbazine Vincristine

2

Facial flushing + antidiuretic effects

Desmopressin (DDAVP)

3

In Anti-retroviral therapy (ART), hyperlipidemia is a complication; statins are used to lower lipids, but statin metabolism is inhibited by Protease inhibitors; Inc. levels of statins can then cause:

rhabdomyolysis

4

Acute infusion reactions including fever, chills, urticaria, headache, bronchospasm, angioedema and hypotension

Rituximab

5

Vomiting brown or bloody stomach contents with pills

iron poisoning s/s

6

Crystalluria-can be avoided with adequate fluid intake or increasing pH of urine

Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and Pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine

7

irreversible ototoxicity, retinopathy, myopathy, and peripheral neuropathy

Chloroquine

8

nausea and vomiting, chills and fever, malaise, anorexia, and weakness

Fludarabine

9

what causes cardiac toxicity in doxo?

Free radicals

10

Leukopenia, cardiotoxicity, & ↑Risk of cancer,

Cyclophosphamide

11

Toxoplasma gondii treatment

Prophylaxis for first episode -->TMP/SMX

Therapy for Encephalitis  Pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine

12

Mucositis.

Doxo/daunorubicin Methotrexate

13

upper respiratory tract infection, rash

Penetration blocker: Maraviroc

14

noncardiogenic pulmonary edema

Cytarabine

15

hyperglycemia due to insulin deficiency, clotting abnormalities due to deficient clotting factors, and hypoalbuminemia.

Asparaginase

16

hemorrhagic cystitis prevented by:

mesna (2-mercaptoethanesulfonate)

17

ankle and periorbital edema

Imatinib (Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor

18

postural dizziness

Penetration blocker: Maraviroc

19

loss of deep tendon reflexes, and motor weakness

Vincristine and Vinblastine (Vinca Alkaloids)

20

Pneumocystis jiroveci treatment

Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole

21

• Nausea & vomiting + Diarrhea & dizziness

Artemisinin

22

Used only in combination with amphotericin B

flucytosine

23

blurring of vision

chloroquine; 

24

catheter-related infections

Factor VIII replacement if used prophylactically;

25

pruritus, wheals, rash, anaphylaxis

Deferoxamine

26

dec. dose with allopurinol

Mercaptuopurine

27

Dacarbazine A/E

Nausea and vomiting. Myelosuppression Extravasation of the drug upon IV can cause severe pain and tissue damage

28

Facial flushing

Desmopressin (DDAVP); Quinine; quinidine (cinchonism)

29

Pulmonary fiborosis/toxicity

Bleomycin Methotrexate (after long-term use)

30

Hepatotoxicity

 

Penetration blocker: Maraviroc

Amodiaquine

31

myelosuppression

Doxo/daunorubicin Cyclophosphamide Dacarbazine Cytarabine Fludarabine Methotrexate

32

Cutaneous toxicity: Hyperpigmentation, hyperkeratosis, erythema, and ulcerations over the elbows, knuckles, and other pressure areas

Bleomycin

33

Long-term complications of ART include:

hyperlipidemia

34

Allergic skin reactions

TMP/SMX; Pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine

35

hypoalbuminemia.

Asparaginase

36

Neutropenia • ↑Susceptibility to infection

Anakinra

37

Cryptococcus neoformans treatment

Therapy for meningitis: Amphotericin B + flucytosine followed by fluconazole Secondary prophylaxis: fluconazole

38

Stevens-Johnson syndrome.

Efavirenz TMP/SMX

39

Gastrointestinal distress

Protease inhibitors ("navir)

Cytarabine

40

can cause water retention and dilutional hyponatermia

Desmopressin (DDAVP) --> antidiuretic effects

41

Ferrous Sulfate a/e

Confined to the GIT: Heartburn Constipation Nausea

42

osteoporosis

Glucocorticoids

43

stomatitis--> inflammation of mouth and lips

Cytarabine

44

Mitochondrial toxicity

Reverse transcriptase inhibitors: Emtricitabine Lamivudine* Tenofovir

45

ECG abnormalities

Quinolone derivatives (Chloro;Quinine,quinidine) Doxo;Daunorubicin; Halofantrine

46

Acute reaction (characterized by fever, or even anaphylaxis)

Anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG)

47

methotrexate myelosuppression reveresed by:

folinic acid (leucovorin

48

hypotension

Chloroquine;  Rituximab

49

flucytosine a/e

myelosuppression

50

local injection site reactions with mild or moderate pain, erythema, induration, nodules and cysts

Enfuvirtide

51

explain side affects in Vincristine

microtubules are important in nerve conduction and neurotransmission

52

Anaphylaxis—although rare—can be fatal

Iron Dextran

53

Neutropenia and thrombocytopenia

Imatinib (Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor

54

tinnitus, dizziness and flushing, vision issues

Cinchonism-> Quinine and Quinidine

55

ulcerations over the elbows, knuckles,

Bleomycin

56

Peripheral neuropathy-->numbness and tingling of the extremities

Vincristine Fludarabine

57

photosensitivity.

Doxycyclin and Tetracyclin

58

Kernicterus in newborns

TMP/SMX; Pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine

59

Cerebellar toxicity, manifest as ataxia and slurred speech

Cytarabine

60

Hypersensitivity rxns

Quinine and Quinidine

61

Thrombophlebitis at the infusion site

Factor VIII replacement; Plasma-derived vWF

62

active against Hep B

Reverse transcriptase inhibitors: Emtricitabine Lamivudine* Tenofovir

63

hemorrhagic cystitis

Cyclophosphamide

64

• Abdominal pain • Diarrhea • Vomiting brown or bloody stomach contents with pills. • Lassitude & drowsiness • Pallor or cyanosis. • Hyperventilation (due to acidosis). • Cardiovascular collapse.

iron poisoning s/s

65

pruritus

Chloroquine; Deferoxamine

66

– Leukopenia – Thrombocytopenia

Sirolimus

67

Cinchonism --> tinnitus, headache, visual disturbances, nausea, dizziness and flushing.

Quinine and Quinidine

68

cardiac toxicity due to doxo prevented by?

dexrazoxane

69

Normochromic, normocytic anemia caused by inc. erythropoietin; reversible

Polyenes: Amphotericin B

70

Pulmonary emboli, DVT, MI

Prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) and activated PCC (aPCC)

71

Long-term use → diabetes mellitus

Glucocorticoids

72

↑Appetite → Weight gain

Glucocorticoids

73

Stevens-Johnson Syndrome which is characterized by blistering of the mucous membranes (mouth, eyes, vagina

TMP/SMX; Pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine

74

Neurotoxicity: altered mental status, coma, seizures.

Cyclophosphamide

75

Anaphylactic rxns—but lower risk than iron dextran

Sodium Ferric Gluconate + Iron Sucrose

76

irreversible ototoxicity

Chloroquine

77

urticaria,, bronchospasm, angioedema and hypotension

Rituximab (infusion rxn)

78

Cerebellar toxicity and cerebral toxicity

Cytarabine

79

myopathy

Chloroquine; Nucleoside RTIs (Lamivudine, Emtri, Tenofo)

80

Nephrotoxicity; reversible

Polyenes: Amphotericin B

81

increased transaminases

Reverse transcriptase inhibitors: Emtricitabine Lamivudine* Tenofovir

82

hyperlipidemia

Cyclosporine Sirolimus

83

1) displace bilirubin from plasma albumin. The free bilirubin deposits in basal ganglia

1) sulfonamides

84

dermatitis.

Cytarabine

85

Endocrinologic abnormalities, e.g., women, menstrual irregularities; men, gynecomastia

Azoles

86

pancreatitis

Reverse transcriptase inhibitors: Emtricitabine Lamivudine* Tenofovir

87

hypertension, hyperlipidemia

Cyclosporine

88

retinopathy,

Chloroquine

89

conjunctivitis

Cytarabine

90

Adverse effects: – Diarrhea

Leflunomide

91

 hyperglycemia

Protease inhibitors ("navir)

Glucocorticoids

Aspiriginase

92

Cough, pyrexia,

Penetration blocker: Maraviroc

93

Avoid abrupt stoppage; taper dosage slowly

Glucocorticoids

94

lipoatrophy myopathy,

Reverse transcriptase inhibitors: Emtricitabine Lamivudine* Tenofovir

95

integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI)

raltegravir

96

Protease inhibitors ("navir) inhibit metabolism of

statins

97

Nephrotoxicity and pulmonary toxicity

methotrexate

98

central fat accumulation

Protease inhibitors ("navir)

99

↑Risk of demyelinating disease

TNF-α Inhibitors: Etanercept, Infliximab, Adalimumab

100

Hemolysis in G6PD deficient pts.

Quinolone derivatives (Chloro;Quinine,quinidine) TMP/SMX

101

neural tube defects

folate deficiency; Efavirenz

102

Dry skin

Tretinoin

103

cerebral toxicity, including seizures, dementia, and coma,

Cytarabine

104

cheilitis--> infl of lip

Tretinoin

105

↑Risk of reactivating latent tuberculosis

TNF-α Inhibitors: Etanercept, Infliximab, Adalimumab

106

what is mesna

conjugates acrolein; prevents hemorrhagic cystitis due to cyclophos

107

Hypoglycemia

Quinine and Quinidine;

 

108

Acute hemolytic anemia in patients with reduced glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity

TMP/SMX; Pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine

109

Peripheral neuropathy

Vincristine Fludarabine Nucleo. RTIs (Emtri, Lamiv* Tenof); Chloroquine

110

why does dexrazoxane work?

When iron is given with Doxo, more FREE RADICALS are formed; dexrazoxane is an iron chelating agent;

111

Cardiac toxicity manifested as ECG changes

Doxo/daunorubicin

112

hepato-, nephro-, and neuro—toxicity

Cyclosporine

113

leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia (agranulocytosis)

Quinine and Quinidine

114

amodiaquine a/e

aplastic anemia; 

hepatotoxicity