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Flashcards in Aerial Apparatus Handbook Deck (72):

For efficient and safe fire control, apparatus driver/operator's must work together to ensure what?

To ensure that aerial apparatus are positioned for maximum use and minimum stress to the aerial devices. In most cases, there are no hard and fast rules for the positioning of aerial apparatus. Driver/operator's must adapt to each individual situation to which they respond.
– The process of positioning the apparatus actual fire incident will be at the discretion of the incident commander, truck company officer, or the driver/operator and influenced by conditions of the fire ground.


In many cases, the development of apparatus placement procedures should be a function of:

Pre-incident planning.
– During pre-incident planning for target hazards. Example: high-rises, hospitals, etc.… Personnel should give special consideration to aerial apparatus in terms of access to various portions of the occupancy, overhead obstructions, and any other factors that may influence the function of the apparatus.


Fire departments use many different procedures for positioning aerial apparatus assigned to the initial response, including the following three examples:

– When two aerials respond to a given location, the first arriving Ariel takes the front of the building and the second goes to the rear for side, depending on building access.
– Went to Ariel's response or a given location, the first Ariel's position is based on the present conditions. The second Ariel stay just one block away or in accordance with departmental SOP's and waits instructions.
– When a single aerial apparatus response to a given location, do you have reddest takes a strategically sound location in front of the fire building unless otherwise directed by the incident commander. Example: the apprentice may be centered in front of the involved portion of the building for offensive operations or had a corner of the building – Out of the collapse zone – for defensive operations.


And aerial apparatus should be positioned outside of the pumpers if the building is less than:

Five stories tall. Or about 60 feet, 18 m
– Engine companies should park on the side of the street closest to the building, and aerial apparatus should park on the outside.
The philosophy here is that the building is low enough to be reached by the aerial device even if it has to go over the close engines. If the building is greater than five stories engines take the outside position and the aerials parked next to the building. This allows the aerials maximum reach.
*Note: this procedure will only work in areas that have sufficiently wide streets and in buildings that are not too far back from the street.
– This procedure also assumes that the department is operating aerial devices within reach of 100 feet. The standard operating procedure may have to be adjusted for for a department store operate with reaches of less or greater than 100 feet.
– Of the previously mentioned examples to provide some direction, each department most of the SOP's and preincident plans it's local conditions. And


What is preincident planning?

The act of preparing to handle an incident at a particular location for a particular type of incident before an incident occurs.


Tactical considerations affecting aerial apparatus positioning:

– Excessive degree of angle, both horizontal and vertical, measured from the trucks center line Texas.
– Operation and nonparallel positions – a pill, downhill, or lateral grades
– Length of aerial device extension
– Nozzle reaction from elevated master stream
– Weight and/or movement of hose, water, personnel, and/or equipment on the aerial device
– Wind reaction
– In proper operation of the aerial device – sudden starts and stops, rough operation of hydraulic controls
– Heat exposure – radiant and convection
– Ice on ladder for platform
– Impacts with the building for other object
– Improper stabilization
– Wear caused by road travel


What are the four main tactical uses for any aerial device – excluding water towers?

– Rescue
– Access to upper levels
– Ventilation
– Fire suppression


Best rescue approach of an aerial apparatus:

– Best approach is made from upwind. If an approach is made from downwind, the aerial device operator may have difficulty seeing the objective, Cruise, and victims will have to deal with the products of combustion or other toxic clouds.
– If possible, the driver/operator should position aerial apparatus used for rescue at the corner of the building. This positioning last rescuers to use the aerial device to reach victims on two sides of the building and is a less vulnerable position in the event that a structural collapse occurs. If he rescues to be made from an area threatened by fire, hose lines can be used to protect the victims, rescuers, and the aerial device.
– If these protective hose lines are needed, caution must be used when selecting the fire stream for the lines. Solid stream or straight stream master streams directed against an aerial device can place damaging the load stresses on the device that could ultimately results in a collapse of the device. Especially if other factors such as wind or icing conditions are also present. Preferred method is to use a wide angle fog stream to push the heat or fire away from the aerial while the rescue operation is in progress. He's cautioned not to injure or not people off of the aerial device.


Access to upper levels with an aerial apparatus:

Aerial devices can be used to give firefighters access to upper levels so that performing interior work with hand lines off the aerial device are possible.. Devices are also used as a means of escape in the events unsafe conditions occur. The devices are also used as a method by which portable equipment can be deployed two of the levels.
– Whatever the situation, the driver/operator should maximize building coverage and aerial device reach and use up wind positioning whenever possible. Apprentice position should provide the maximum degree of safety to the firefighters using the aerial device. Positioning the apparatus on the side of the building opposite the fire often provides a safe position. This position allows interior to cruise to advance hose lines toward the foyer area from the unburned side, which is a standard firefighting tactic used to avoid pushing the fire into the unburned portions of the building.


Aerial apparatus used in ventilation:

Proper placement of the aerial apparatus can't make the ventilation process quicker and safer.
– When the aerial devices being used to provide access for ventilating a pitched roof, it may be possible to position the apparatus so that the firefighters may operate directly from the device. This is especially beneficial in a fully involved building for the roof may potentially collapse. In order to reduce the risk of personal injury, whenever possible, tether firefighters to the aerial device with rescue quality rope.
– When providing access for ventilating a flat roof, the driver/operator should position aerial apparatus on the unburned side of the structure, as close as possible to the area being ventilated. This minimizes the travel distance between the work area and the aerial and could be important in the event of a roof failure.
– Aerial ladders should be extended at least 6 feet above the roof level. When operating with an aerial platform, the driver/operator should extend the platform so that the floor of the platform is at roof level.
– If the aerial device is being used to assist with horizontal ventilation, such as breaking removing windows, the turntable should be positioned so that the entire aerial device will be up wind of the ventilation point and will have access to his many windows as possible. This rule is the same for ground the ladder placement.
If the aerial device is being used to assist horizontal ventilation efforts, the tip of the device should be placed in the upper corner of the window on the upwind side


What is a blitz attack?

– An aggressive attack upon a fire from the exterior with a large diameter
-When used, the driver/operator should position to give the fire stream as much reach into the fire Area as possible. The ultimate goal will be to place the nozzle in the lower portion of the window open so that the fire string may be directed upward toward the ceiling. The driver/operator must ensure that the apparatus is close enough to the building so that the tip of the device can be placed into the desired position.


What is a defensive attack?

– Exterior fire attack with emphasis on exposure protection
Elevated master streams are most commonly used in defense of operations. In this type of operation, the elevated stream may be used to directly attack the fire, cool brands and gases within the thermal Collumn,and protect exposures.
– When a defense of attack is employed, the chance for building collapse must be considered. Positioning the apprentice at the corners of the building and otherwise safe distance from the building decreases the chance of damage to the truck and injury to the firefighters in the event of a collapse. It also decreases The chance of damage from radiant heat from the fire. However, the safe distance must be balanced with a close enough distance to allow the bulk of the fires trying to be able to reach the seat of the fire area for the exposures being protected.


– What is exposure protection?

– Covering any object in the immediate vicinity of the fire with water or foam


Danger of using Elevated master streams with the aerial apparatus:

– When crews are working inside the building, never perform external fire the taxis and master streams, including from the aerial device. External master stream attacks pose a serious safety threat to interior firefighting cruise by the disturbance of the interior balance, the large volume of steam created, the possibility of being struck by the stream, and the additional weight imposed on the building. Be aware of collapse if water is not draining from the building at the approximate rate of input.


When using the aerial device as a master stream closer to ground level especially if the apparatus is equipped with water towers and telescoping aerial platforms.

When used in this manner, the driver/operator position the apparatus so that the turntable is directly in line with the intended target – usually a window, door, or opening of some sort. Position allows the fires trying to penetrate as far into the fire area as possible. In addition the driver/operator will need to judge the distance of the building so that the nozzle will get close enough to be effective.


What type of attack will penetrate the area without disturbing the thermal balance and break the strain into finer water particles upon contact?

– directing the master stream at the ceiling of the target fire, it creates a near perfect atmosphere for steam conversion.


Why should the aerial apparatus not be supported on a structure during Fire operations?

The aerial device should not be supported on the structure during operations! Nozzle reaction and shutting down the streams can cause the device to batter the building which has already been weekend and perhaps trigger a collapse.


Effectively spotting the apparatus:

Refers to positioning the apparatus in a location that provides the utmost efficiency for operating on a fire ground.
– Surface conditions – soft pavement or soil
– Weather and wind conditions
– Electrical hazards and ground or overhead obstructions
– Angle and location of aerial device operation
– Fire building conditions


What is ice shrugging?

A method to remove ice from aerial device.
– It involves slowly extending and retracting the aerial device to remove accumulated ice. This maneuver may not be effective for large accumulations of ice and in these instances, application of deicing fluid may be necessary.


What can impose a dynamic load on the aerial device and reduce the overall stability?

Moderate to high winds may reduce overall stability by the force of the wind blowing against the device and forcing movement for which it was not designed. Wind also magnifies the other loads placed on the device by personnel and equipment.
– The driver/operator should spot the apparatus in a manner that requires the aerial device to be raised to the minimum extension needed. It is also helpful to position so that the aerial device may be used over the front or rear of the apparatus, preferably parallel to the wind.
*The driver/operator should always adhere to the manufacturers recommendations for operations in windy conditions


Electrical hazards and ground or overhead obstructions with a aerial apparatus

Ariel driver/operators must continually be aware of overhead power lines. When parking the apparatus, it is just as important to look up as it is to look at the ground. If possible, the driver/operator should avoid spotting the apparatus in a position that will require a lot of aerial device maneuvering around obstructions.
Note: the goal is to maintain a distance of at least 10 feet between the aerial device and overhead electrical lines.
– Caution should be exercised around other types of overhead lines such as: telephone and cable TV lines. Occasionally, these normally harmless lines will be in contact with electric lines somewhere down the road, and may also be energized!
– Personnel on the apparatus are generally considered to be susceptible to electric shocks, regardless of whether or not they are in contact with electric lines. Jump clear of the energized apparatus to reduce the risk of electrocution.
– When positioning aerial apparatus, driver/operator's should avoid trees and overhangs, parked vehicles, trash containers, and similar obstructions, which may affect the operation of stabilizers and/or aerial device.


Angle and location of aerial device operation:

– Principles of spotting the aerial apparatus are linked with stabilizing the apparatus. Stability of aerial apparatus can be improved by operating the aerial device in line with the longitudinal axis or apparatus body.
– In other words, the aerial apparatus is most stable when the aerial device is operated directly over the phone for rear of the vehicle. Increasing the angle of the aerial device away from the longitudinal axis of the truck decreases the amount of load that can be carried safely.


Which angle of operation provides the least stable position for an aerial apparatus?

An angleperpendicular to the apparatus


What position is best for a rear – mounted aerial device?

Backing the apparatus into the objective is the preferred method, as this maximizes the reach of the aerial device.


What are the three considerations that driver/operator's should keep in mind when determining angle and location for Ariel device operations?

– Jackknifing – involves turning the tractor ankle from the trailer.
– Stress in aerial devices
– Choosing a supported position


Jack knifing and the aerial apparatus.

Aerial apparatus with a tiller may be positioned to increase stability by jackknifing.
– Greatest stability occurs when this angle is approximately 60° from inline and the aerial device is extended away from this angle.
– Good stability occurs and goes up to 90°. Beyond that stability decreases rapidly. The driver/operator must be familiar with the manufacturers recommendations for their particular apparatus


Stress in aerial devices:

is increased when the ladder rungs are operated non-parallel to the ground or when the apparatus parked on an incline and the aerial device must operate off the sides of the apparatus. These positions and others like them create a torsion for twisting action on the ladder or boom and turntable.
– When an apparatus must operate off of an incline, the driver/operator can reduce these stresses spotting the turntable downhill from the point of operation.
– When approaching from the uphill side, pull the apparatus past the building, and operate the aerial device from the rear of the truck.
– When approaching from the downhill side, apparatus should be stopped short of the building, and the aerial should be operated over the cab
– Ideally, the truck should be operated in the uphill position with the aerial device directly in line to reduce the stress.


In what cases, is it possible to level the truck someone by using the stabilizers to raise one side of the truck more than the other?

Generally, this is only possible on grades that are perpendicular to the long centerline of the apparatus. The ability to do this depends on the type of stabilizer with which the truck is equipped. For the most part, it can only be done with single chassis vehicles that are designed to be lifted completely off of the ground.


Choosing a supported position with an aerial apparatus:

Depends on whether the aerial device is designed to be operated in either an unsupported for cantilever position. Or a supported for resting on a wall position. The driver/operator should follow the manufacturers recommendation.


What is generally the maximum loading angle for any unsupported aerial device?

Between 70° and 80° from horizontal.


Aerial apparatus and fire building conditions:

– The condition of the fire building, as well as other building related concerns, must be considered when positioning the apparatus. Buildings that have been subjected to extensive fire damage for buildings in poor condition before the fire incident may be subject to sudden collapse. For this reason, park at press for enough away so that they will not be in the collapse zone.
– The collapse so should be at least equal to 1 1/2 times the height of the building.
– Even if the apparatus is not struck by falling debris, it may be exposed to higher levels of radiant heat and smoke following and collapse.
– In many cases the aerial apparatus is the most expensive exposure on the fire ground. The driver/operator should keep this in mind when positioning The apparatus.


Indicators of an unstable building

– Bulging walls
– Sagging roof
– Large cracks in the exterior
– Falling bricks, blocks, or mortar
– Interior collapse
– Results of pre-incident plan
*good and thorough preincident planning is instrumental in identifying all buildings of safety risk in any given district. If the fire building is known to be unstable and in poor repair, the aerial device should not be used in a supporting position.


Aerial apparatus and fire intensity:

– The intensity of the fire may also dictate the placement of the apprentice. Large fires indicate that placement of the apparatus must be further away from the fire built. Especially if the building has been noted to be a safety risk.
– Consideration must also be given to the fires potential growth.


Leave the apparatus a way out:

Avoid making the apparatus and exposure hazard itself. If you apparatus is to be positioned in a dead end, back the apparatus into position if possible. This will make an escape faster if it becomes necessary.


Aerial apparatus and falling debris?

Another consideration for spotting apparatus, is to breathe I can fall from upper levels of the fire building, which is enough to kill her concern that high-rise fire incidents. Large pieces of glass, roof mounted signs, steel gates, concrete blocks, awnings, parapet walls, and other debris maybe falling from stories above street level.
– This can pose a serious hazard personnel operating off apparatus and to the apparatus itself. In these situations, the apparatus should be spotted away from the area in which to Bree may fall. All personnel should be directed away from the hazardous fall zone.


Staging with the aerial apparatus:

Often, apparatus placement at the scene of a fire or medical incident is limited by the order in which responding apparatus arrive. A later arriving aerial apparatus may be blocked from a better position by an earlier arriving engine or rescue vehicle. And apparatus staging procedure facilitates the orderly positioning of apparatus and allows the incident commander to fully utilize the potential of each unit and crew.


Level one staging with an aerial apparatus:

Level one staging is used on every emergency response when two companies performing similar functions are dispatched. For example, to Ariel companies. The first do engine company, truck company, rescue squad, and command officer proceed directly to the scene. Later arriving units park or stage at least one block before reaching the scene in their direction of travel or otherwise according to department SOP's. The incident commander may order staged units to lay additional water supply lines and send personnel to the scene for proceed to the scene and set up. Staged apparatus should not allow their paths to become blocked.


Level two staging:

Level two staging is used when numerous emergency vehicles will be responding to an incident. Incidents that require mutual aid for that results in multiple alarms require level to staging. When the incident commander request additional units, and apparatus staging area is also designated. Companies are informed Of the staging area location when they are dispatched and respond directly to that location.


Who is the staging area manager?

Company officer of the first arriving company at the staging who takes command of the area and is responsible for communicating available resources and resource needs to the operations section chief.


Staging area:

The staging area should be a secure area that is free from non-emergency traffic. The apparatus belonging to the staging area manager should park near the entrance to the staging area and should leave on its emergency lights. All subsequent apparatus arriving at the staging area should shut down their engines and turn off their emergency lights when they park. This makes it less complicated for incoming companies to identify the location of the staging area.


Positioning for unique responses:

A variety of other scenarios and conditions of apparatus placement. The driver/operator must be familiar with these circumstances so that the apparatus is placed in a safe, effective location for each situation.


Approaching and positioning on highways:

Some of the most dangerous scenarios faced by firefighters are operations on highways, interstates, turnpikes, and other busy roadways. The most common types of incidents on these thorough fairs are motor vehicle collisions and/or fires.
– The potential for multi vehicle collisions, multiple injuries incidents, incidents involving hazardous materials is also high. There are numerous challenges relative to apparatus placement, operational effectiveness, and responder safety when dealing with incidents on a busy roadways.
– Because many fire jurisdictions to use truck companies to perform extrication operations at motor vehicle accidents, the aerial apparatus driver/operator must be well-trained in the principles of positioning on highways.
– Water supply can be a problem on roadways that are in rural areas or even on limited access highways in urban areas. Hydrant placement on highways may be in frequent or may not exist at all. It may be necessary to stretch hose lines or use an aerial device from an overpass or underpass to get water to the level of the highway.
– The driver/operator should use prudence when responding to an incident on a highway or turnpike. And fire apparatus usually travel slower than the normal flow of traffic, and the use of warning lights and sirens may create less desirable traffic conditions then it's responding without warning devices. During nighttime incidents, he's a minimum number of warning lights at the scene to prevent blinding other drivers or distracting them, possibly leading to another accident. Once on the scene, place headlights on the low beam setting, without flashing.


NFPA 1901 contains material specific to the correct lighting configurations for fire apparatus:

It divides an apparatus into four zones in which emergency lights may be used, based on whether the apparatus wants the right of way or wants to block the right-of-way.


Coordination is the central between police and fire department personnel at Highway incidents. The following steps should be used to ensure personnel safety.

– Close at least one lane next to the incident Lane. If the extra lane does not provide a safe Barrier, additional or all traffic lanes may have to be closed
– Position fire apparatus at an angle to act as a shield between the flow of traffic and the firefighters working on the incident.
– Turn the front wheels away from the firefighters working highway incidents so that the apparatus will not be driven into them if struck from behind
– Consider parking additional apparatus 150–200 feet behind the shielding apparatus to act as an additional barrier between firefighters and the flow of traffic
– If the aerial device is going to be deployed on the highway, the driver/operator must keep the following safety considerations in mind:
–Traffic moving by the area may cause vibrations that affect the stability of the apparatus, especially on elevated roadways.
– The driver/operator should frequently check the stabilizers to ensure that they are in solid contact with the stabilizer pads and the ground
– The driver/operator should use caution when maneuvering the aerial device to make sure that it is not placed in a position where it may be struck by another apparatus for passing traffic. This is of particular concern when operating articulating apparatus that have the boom and knuckle behind the platform.


Approaching and positioning at hazardous materials incidents:

– Always stop well short of the incident scene until the nature of the hazard is understood
– Do not park over manholes or storm drains. Flammable materials flowing into the underground system could ignite and explode
– Obtain information on the wind speed and direction while in route to the scene. This may be obtained by the dispatcher or company officer and by observing the conditions as you respond
– Park and approach the incident from the upwind and up hill side if at all possible
*Safety tip. If the material involved is a corrosive, be aware that any contact with the aerial device could result in damage


Purpose of control zones:

Control zones prevent sightseers and other unauthorized persons from interfering with first responders, help regulate movement of first responders within the zones, and minimize contamination.
– Control zones are not necessarily static and can be adjusted as the changes.
-Zones divide the levels of hazard of an incident, and the name of a zone is based on its level of danger.


Hot zone:

Also called the restricted zone, exclusion zone, or red zone. The area surrounding the incident that has been contaminated by the release material. This Area will be exposed to gases, vapors, mists, dust, or run off of the material
This zone extends far enough to prevent people outside the zone from suffering ill effects from the hazardous material


Warm zone:

Also called contamination reduction zone, limited access zone, or yellow zone
– An area abutting The hot zone and extending to the cold zone. The warm zone is used to support workers in the hot zone and to decontaminate personnel and equipment exiting the hot zone.
– Decontamination usually takes place within a Corredor – D con Corredor. Located in the warm zone


Cold zone:

Also called the support zone or green zone.
– Encompasses the warm zone and is used to carry out all other support functions of the incident. Workers in the cold zone are not required to wear personal protective clothing because the zone is considered safe.
– The command post, the staging area, and triage/treatment area are you located within the cold zone.
– Most of the time the driver/operator and the apparatus will be positioned in the cold zone.


Approaching and operating near railroads:

Okay Asian only, emergency incidents occur on or in close proximity to railroads. Driver/operator's should understand the hazards associated with operating near railroads and take any measures possible to minimize those hazards.
– Emergency personnel should always treat a railroad track as an active railroad line. Parked the apparatus far enough away from the tracks so that it or a deployed aerial device will not be struck by a train.
When possible, the driver/operator should park the apparatus on the same side of the tracks as the incident. This negates the need to raise the aerial device across the tracks or for personnel to traverse back and forth between each side.
– Most railroad companies advised that vehicles be kept at least 25 feet from the tracks when possible.
– If it becomes absolutely necessary to raise an aerial device across a railroad track, confirm with the railroad company that train traffic has been halted on that set of tracks. Even when a halt confirmation has been received, keep the aerial device at least 25 feet above the level of The rails as an added safety precaution.
– The conditions of the road or ground surface near railroad tracks are often unstable. When in doubt, the driver/operator should consider additional cribbing when stabilizing the apparatus. Passing trains may vibrate the ground enough to make stabilization impossible


Approaching and positioning at emergency medical incidents:

Apparatus positioning on these incidents is important from a tactical standpoint as well as from a safety standpoint. Many firefighters have been injured or killed when struck by vehicles at emergency medical incidents
– The driver/operator should allow the ambulance the best position for patient loading. If possible, the apparatus should be parked off the street, although this may be difficult with a large aerial apparatus. This virtually eliminates any of the hazards associated with traffic.
– If locating off of the street, the operator should make sure that the surface is stable enough to support the weight of the fire apparatus. Residential driveways and yards are not recommended as stable services for fire apparatus. Many fire apparatus have become stuck on private property or damaged private property by cracking concrete driveways and sidewalks
– If it is not possible to locate off the street, the driver/operator should position the apparatus to shield firefighters from traffic. An aerial apparatus should be parked between smaller apparatus, such as an ambulance, and the oncoming flow of traffic. In particular the driver/operator should guard the patient loading area of the ambulance by shielding with another vehicle.
– When possible, traffic cones should be placed to direct traffic away from the apparatus and/or the incident.


Approaching and positioning aircraft incidents:

Aerial apparatus may respond to incidents involving aircraft for a number of reasons.
– Aerial apparatus frequently Carrie extrication equipment that may be useful for rescuing victims of an aircraft accident. Some incidents involving large frame aircraft may require the use of a real device to access the interior of a plane.


What are the three basic types of aircraft incidents to which aerial apparatus may respond?

– Aircraft incidents involving extrication
– Aircraft incidents involving extrication complicated by fire
– Non-incident related aircraft fires
In reality, there are few tactical uses for aerial devices at the scene of aircraft incidents. The apparatus will be primarily used to transport firefighters and portable equipment as needed to upper levels. Many collisions occur away from runways, taxiways, and other paved surfaces. Aerial apparatus are typically not well-suited for off-road operations. Therefore, it may not be possible to get the apparatus very close to the actual scene for work area. In these cases, the driver/operator should park the apparatus as close to the scene as reasonably possible. It may be necessary to ferry equipment and personnel from the aerial apparatus to the work area using a more suitable vehicle
– The aerial device may be used to provide access for ventilation, to rescue passengers, to deploy hand lines to the interior of the aircraft, or for master stream applications. If the tip of the device is to be placed in an aircraft, apparatus should be positioned for accessing the window of a building.
– If the objective is to provide access over a wing want to remove victims from a wing, the positioning principles are basically the same as for providing access to the roof of a building.
– During an aircraft incident, aerial apparatus may be positioned in the general area where the emergency aircraft comes to a halt. In this situation, the driver/operator should avoid spotting the apparatus in a position that hinders the deployment of the aircraft emergency slides. These slides in flight and drop from the door openings of the aircraft. On larger aircraft, they insulate and drop from the rear of the wings near the emergency window exits.
These shoots will allow the aircraft to be evacuated much more quickly than trying to remove victims down the aerial device.


When responding to any type of aircraft incident and positioning on the scene, the driver/operator should keep in mind the following safety requirements:

– Watch for pools of jet fuel – do not drive through them or close enough to present an ignition source
– Position upwind of any fire conditions or vapors from unignited pools of fuel
– Watch for the wreckage or other debris obscured by smoke or darkness that may flatten the tires
– Stage the apparatus near the expected touchdown area when dispatched to an aircraft emergency landing. Complete the response only after the aircraft has touchdown. If you position where the aircraft is expected to stop, the apparatus and crew could become part of an airplane crash in the event the airplane goes out of control. Especially belly landings or jammed landing gear incidents


Jet engine hazard areas:

A jumbo jet size transport aircraft has engine thrusts from 25,000 pounds up to 105,000 pounds.
– Ground idle blast danger areas can be as wide as 250 feet across from the rear of the aircraft and up to 600 feet behind the tale of the aircraft.
– Take off thrust blast danger area is at least 1600 feet behind the tale of the aircraft and 275 feet across


Medium size jet transport aircraft hazard areas:

– engine thrusts from 10,000 pounds up to 40,000 pounds.
– Ground Idol last danger area is 450 feet behind tail and 150 feet across
– Take off thrust blast danger area extends 1200 feet from the tail and 150 feet across


Executive jet aircraft hazard areas:

– Engine thrusts up to 10,000 pounds
– Ground idol blast danger area and extends 200 feet behind the tail and 80 feet across.
– Take off thrust blast danger area extends 500 feet from the tail and 80 feet across


Approaching and operating on bridges:

Aerial apparatus may be required to position on and operate from a bridge or overpass. This most commonly occurs when a large fire of some type for rescue operation occurs next to a bridge. In these cases, the incident commander May determine that it is tactically important to deploy elevated master streams from the bridge side of the incident.
– Be sure that the bridge has a load capacity that is safe for the apparatus to drive on and operate from
– Use caution when raising of the aerial device if the bridge has a superstructure above the room service. If electric lines are present, follow the standard 10 foot safety distance from them.
– Be sure the road surface upon which the apparatus is parked on is in good repair. Avoid weak spots that might allow a stabilizer to punch through the bridge decking
– Follow the principles discussed earlier in this chapter for setting up the aerial apparatus on an incline if the bridge has a significantly sloped surface
– Be alert for wind conditions on top of a large bridge. It may be necessary to use Highwind operating principles for the aerial device. Wind conditions may be more severe here than on either side of the access to the bridge
– Recognize that most large virgins are designed to move somewhat in response to forces placed upon them by wind, traffic, and water movement below. This movement will be amplified at the tip of a raised Ariel device, depending on the type and intensity of the force. When this movement becomes uncomfortable for firefighters or begins to place excessive lateral stress on the aerial device, minimize the extension of the device as much as possible
– Remember that bridges and elevated sections of roads will be the first road surfaces to freeze during cold weather. This can Bose series travel and positioning hazards later in the incident.


Approaching and operating petroleum storage/processing facilities:

Aerial apparatus are frequently used to provide elevated master streams at fires involving large storage tanks for fuel – chemical processing facilities. The master streams may be used for exposure protection or fire attack.
– When operating at storage tank fires, the apparatus should never be spotted inside the dike that surrounds the effect of tank. The driver operator should always position the apparatus outside the dikes walls, unless the roadway is built on top of the that case, the apparatus may actually be set up on the dike itself, although a constant monitoring of the conditions of the dike must be maintained.
– An appointment location is most desirable if the aerial device is being used for direct fire attack.
– It is more efficient to discharge form streams down wind. This also reduces the amount of heat and smoke to which the apparatus will be exposed. If the aerial device is being used to protect exposures, the specific needs will dictate the exact spot for the apparatus to park. However, this does not negate the need to keep apparatus outside the dike.


Challenges in positioning aerial apparatus:

– Narrow driveways – it may be extremely difficult and time-consuming to maneuver the apparatus into the most desirable position
– Dead end excesses– Because incidence of this nature have the potential to quickly become more severe, never place the apparatus in a position where a difficult reverse retreat would be required. Take the time to back the apparatus into position if this is the case.
– Overhead obstructions – refineries and chemical processing facilities are typically a maze of overhead piping and conduits. Be certain that the final spot chosen for the aerial apparatus is one that will allow the aerial device to be deployed effectively without coming into contact with any overhead obstructions


Approaching and operating at technical rescue incidents:

The following general principles may be used for technical rescue incidents:
– Place the apparatus in a position that minimizes the angle and extension to which the aerial device will be raised. These principles are much the same as those described earlier in the chapter for positioning the apparatus to operate the device to a window or roof
– Avoid spotting the apparatus in a location that will require the apparatus to be stabilized on top of debris or otherwise unstable surfaces
– Be aware of dangling debris and unstable structures that could drop or collapse onto the apparatus and the firefighters working around it
– Do not stress the aerial with shock load for overloading if the apparatus is being used for in over water rescue or other low-level service
– Parked the apparatus in a manner that does not block other apparatus to be closer to the work area – if the aerial apparatus is going to be used in a support role – however, do not park it so far away that it is difficult to carry ground ladders and other portable equipment to the rescue seeing if needed
– Of wood parking in a position where apparatus exhaust fumes, noise, vibrations will affect victims and rescuers
– Maintain adequate distance from trench walls and other unstable terrain
–Do not block seen access to later arriving fire vehicles
– Shut down the engine if the apprentices used solely for person power


Summary of chapter 6 aerial apparatus:

Positioning aerial apparatus will never be a perfect science. This chapter offers guidelines to aid the driver/operator in making certain decisions with regard to ideal positioning of the apparatus. The following are some of the many variables which affects the parking distance from the building:
– Size and specifications of the apparatus
– Obstructions – parked vehicles, trees, utility lines
– Height of the building or target floor
– Condition of the road surface
– Weather considerations
– Traffic conditions
– Fire conditions
– Rescue concerns


Operation strategies represent the overall plans needed to successfully extinguish a fire and terminate a fire scene. The operational strategies chosen depend on prefire plans, pre-arrival information, and initial size of the incident and may include some or all of the following:

– Rescue applications
– Exposure protection
– Ventilation
– Elevated fire attack


Even though the aerial device has many important tactical functions, it is good to keep in mind for various convenience features that are available on many aerial apparatus.

– All aerials are equipped with an effective means of two-way communication
– Some aerial devices, especially aerial platforms, are equipped with pre-connect to the lighting, electrical outlets, pre-plumbed SCBA connections and pre-plumbed waterways. Some waterways include auxiliary connections for hand lines


What is a strategy?

Overall plan for incident attack and control established by the incident commander


What are tactics?

Methods of employing equipment and personnel on an incident to accomplish specific tactical objectives in order to achieve established strategic goals


Aerial apparatus rescue operations:

The rescue operations are always the first priority on the fire ground. If fire conditions do not allow victims to be brought down the interior stairs for exterior fire scapes, it will be necessary to use ground ladders for an aerial device to get them down.
– Priority considerations in situations that require using aerial apparatus for rescue, the main objective is to reach as many victims or points of egress as possible with a minimum number of Ariel movements


Most severely threatened by conditions of the hazard:

– These people are in the greatest amount of real or perceived danger and should be given the highest priority. Determining which victims are in the most danger is a judgment call that the incident commander, truck company officer, for aerial apparatus driver/operator must make.
– Typically, occupants located on or immediately above the fire floor will be in the greatest danger.
– Visible fire conditions will be a strong indication of which victims are in the worst situation. Additionally preference should be given to individuals Who are in a panic state and appear ready to jump if they do not see that help is imminent. On the other hand, firefighters should never pass up a true rescue emergency just to rescue a panic the person who is in a safe area.


Rescue priorities: largest number of groups of people.

The second priority to be considered involves multiple victims who may be located in different parts of the fire building.
– When two or more groups of victims appear to be in the same amount of danger, the larger of the two groups should have the aerial device extended to them first.
– In a worse case scenario, it is best to rescue the largest number of people possible, given the time available.
*Note: this is a good time to consider calling for another aerial apparatus!


Rescue priorities: remainder of people in the hazard area.

The third priority involves the remainder of people in the fire area. Remaining groups of victims should be removed in order of the next most threatened by the hazard. During this process, the driver/operator and/or company officer should continue to monitor fire conditions for changes that might increase the danger to any of the waiting victims.


Rescue priorities: people in exposed areas.

The fourth priority is the people in the exposed area. Once all those who appeared to be in immediate danger have been removed, other victims who are unable to escape the fire building or exposures by standard methods should next be evacuated
In the case of victims who fall into both the third and fourth categories, some judgment should be used to determine whether or not the victims are in danger to warrant evacuation by aerial device. In many cases, these victims can simply be reassured that they are not in immediate danger and left in place until fire conditions improve. At that time they can be evacuated using interview stairways for fire scapes.
–the risk of injuring a victim during a ladder evacuation should be avoided if it is not truly necessary.


changing rescue priorities:

Driver/operator's should always be alert for changing fire conditions during rescue operations. In some cases, it is possible that victims who did not appear to be risky priority operations began could suddenly become a top priority due to fire growth and spread or smoke penetration in their area. Often, when rescue is the highest priority on the fire ground, fire attack may not be getting the normal amount of attention, possibly due to shortages of firefighters and equipment therefore, the fire may be continuing to grow and spread, threatening victims initially deemed safe.