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As a new officer, riding on an engine or truck company arriving at the scene of a working fire or other emergency:

A new officer may be overwhelmed. Due to lack of experience and for training.
– At the scene of emergencies, the first arriving officers are usually concerned with limited resources, time and many unknown factors. Working in these conditions is difficult and dangerous; leading others under such conditions can be extremely challenging.
– You are expected to be calm and decisive, to issue clear orders, and to keep track of all the activities. You are responsible for the safety of others. You're responsible for at least some aspect of the management of the incident and, in many situations, may be the incident commander

1

Today's firefighting requires experience, knowledge, and skills:

Modern firefighting requires more than just experience; it requires knowledge and skill. With the gradual decline in number of serious fires encountered, good officers will learn from every opportunity, including actual working incidents, participating in training and drills, attending seminars, and reading about the subject as much as possible.

2

Who was the chief of the London fire brigade in the 1870s?

Massy Shaw. He visited the United States and criticized Americas firefighters for their lack of knowledge of the fire protection industry.

3

Who wrote the classic text fire ground tactics?

Emanuel fried
– He stated that command on the fire ground is a demanding task for the officer. To improve the ability to handle the situations we have to concede certain basic faults we find in ourselves. Admit these possibilities:
– You are going to get excited
– You are going to yell
– You are going to make mistakes
– You were going to lose buildings
– Note: many factors contribute to the company being ready to deal with emergency situations, including your knowledge of the job

4

Understanding the communities needs:

Fire department should be assessing their communities risk factors. This is the first step in identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the department in dealing with emergencies.
Members of the company responsible for that area should be interested in the risk factors in that area. They should look at specific situations where they may be called upon to save lives and protect property and should also be thinking about the overall community consequences.

5

For company officers, a general knowledge of your area of responsibility this is essential for effective operations. This knowledge includes the following:

– Physical factors: geographical size, population, valuation, response time, and topography of the community
– Excess factors: excess and barriers to all areas
– Occupancy factors: the nature of the businesses that occupy the buildings
– Structural factors: age, type, and density of the structures
– Resource factors: fire department resources, and for firefighting purpose, water supply capabilities
– Survival factors: stairwells and other penetrations to allow for rescue, fire spread, and potential falling hazards for firefighters

6

Building construction:

– During the course of your fire service career, virtually every commercial building and all but a few residential buildings you encounter will have been constructed or renovated under a construction code.
– There is an axiom in the construction business: which of the five types of construction is preferred by design professionals for their projects?
The cheapest!

7

What is the primary purpose of a building code?

– Prescribe standards that will keep buildings from falling down.
– Gravity
– Snow loads
– Wind loads
– Potential earthquake loads

8

What are the goals of building codes?

– Maintain the integrity of the structure and prevent collapse
– Limit fire size by preventing fire spread
– Provide adequate time for occupants to escape or shelter within
– The girls can be met in a variety of ways, using fire resistance rated construction, fire extinguisher and systems, and noncombustible building materials and providing adequate fire separation distance.

9

Two important terms to understanding construction types are:

Noncombustible and fire resistance.
– A noncombustible building material will not burn, and fire resistance is the resistance of a building to collapse for two total involvement in fire.

10

The length of time typical structural members and assemblies resist specified temperatures under test conditions?

Tthe late Frank Brannigan described it as fire endurance

11

How construction types affect you:

In general, it can be said that the building makes the problem.
For the most part, fires that a current building supposed to greatest risk to the occupants and fire fighting forces, and pose the greatest challenge. Branigan made his point by describing a fire involving 50 upholster chairs stacked in a barren field as one unit response using less than a tank of water. The same fire in a Hilton hotel killed two people and injured 36 others. Fire intensity and behavior will, for the most part, be affected by the types of building materials used, the construction methods, and the built in fire protection features installed during construction

12

Types of construction:

There are three key points to remember when dealing with building construction types:
– All construction is either combustible meaning it will burn, or noncombustible and it won't
– The term protected, when applied to construction materials, means protected from the effects of fire by encasement. Concrete, chip some spray on coatings are all used to protect construction elements. Protected construction does not mean the building has a sprinkler system
– The code specifies the minimum requirements, but permits the use of materials that extract those requirements. Making assumptions based on your view from the street is risky and potentially hazardous for you and your crew.
– Some buildings with combustible components are actually more fire resistant then some noncombustible buildings. That is where protection structural elements comes into play. A lightweight steel building may be noncombustible but will fail quickly when exposed to a fire involving combustible contents. Conversely, buildings with masonry exterior walls and heavy timber choice of combustible components that hold up quite well compared to lightweight steel.

13

Determining construction type:

The occupancy classifications, building area, number of stories, location on the lot, distance from the lot lines, fire department access to the exterior of the structure, and whether the building will be equipped with sprinklers all have to be established before the minimum construction type can be determined.
– Occupancy classifications that are more hazardous, based on the vulnerability of the occupants – hospitals and nursing homes – or the relative hazards associated with the function of the building – repair garage versus an office building for the materials handle or stored manufacturing or processing hazardous materials, have more stringent construction requirements

14

Five construction types:

There are five basic construction types recognized by the international building code or IBC. The IBC's predecessor regional building codes used slightly different terms for the same basic types.
– Type one: fire resistive
– Type two: noncombustible
– Type III: ordinary
– Type for: heavy timber
– Type five: frame

15

Type 1: fire resistive construction:

In type one construction, structural elements are noncombustible and our protect to the highest level. Type one is divided into two subtypes. The difference between them is the level of protection for the structural elements – expressed in hours –. Only noncombustible materials are permitted for the structural elements. Structural steel is encased in concrete, gypsum, or cementaceous Coating.
– High-rise buildings with steel structural elements encased in concrete or examples of type one buildings.

16

Type two: noncombustible construction:

Type two construction, the structural elements are also noncombustible. The difference between type one fire resistive and type two noncombustible is in the level of protection of the structural elements. Type one is protect to the highest level. Take to subdivided into subtypes; one is protected less then type one and the other has no protection. Type two buildings are noncombustible but are afforded limited or no fire resistance for the structural elements
– The typical strip shopping center or big-box store with masonry block walls, steel bar joists, unprotected steel columns, and the steel roof deck is a type to be unprotected building. If there is a sprinkler system failure, the roof structure can fail quickly and collapse

17

The sofa superstore in Charleston, South Carolina, was originally constructed in the 1960s under the standard building code:

It was originally constructed in the 1960s under the standard building codes equivalent of IBC type IIB construction.
– Automatic sprinklers were not required by the code at that time. The roof structure failed and collapsed 43 minutes from the time the first hand while he was deployed on the fire that started on the exterior loading dock. Steel is a superior building material, with good strength in both tension and compression. However, steel loses almost half of its strength at 900°.

18

Characteristics of steel structures:

Steel has a high thermal conductivity, which means it can transfer heat away from a localized source and act as a heat sink. If an intense fire is evenly distributed along the steel member, the critical temperature may be reached very quickly. Steel also has a high coefficient of expansion that results in the expansion of steel members as they are heated. A 50 foot long steel beam heated uniformly over its length from 72° – 972°F will expand in length by 3.9 inches
– The same being heated to 800°F would expand by 3.2 inches; if heated to 1200°F to being would expand by 4.9 inches

19

Type III: ordinary construction:

In type III construction, the exterior of the building is noncombustible, typically masonry, it may be rated depending on the horizontal distance to exposures. The interior structural elements may be of any of the material, combustible or noncombustible.
– Type III construction is divided into two subtypes: protected and unprotected.
– The brick, wood joist did buildings that line our city streets are of type III construction, for ordinary construction. The term ordinary dates back to the time when most city and town building codes established fire districts where combustible building exteriors were prohibited to reduce conflagration potential. It was the least expensive type permitted. Ordinary construction is not very ordinary anymore – it has become too expensive!

20

Type four: heavy timber construction:

Type IV construction dates back to the new England cotton and wouldn't mills of the mid-1800s. Mill owners banded together and formed mutual fire insurance companies, but only insured the best risks. Type for heavy timber construction is also called mill construction. The exterior walls are noncombustible masonry, and the interior structural elements are unprotected would of large cross sectional dimensions.
– Columns must be at least 8 inches if supporting a floor load, and Joists and beams must be a minimum of 6 inches in width and 10 inches in depth. Type four is not subdivided. The inherent fire resistive nature of large diameter would members is taken into account. A key strength is that concealed spaces are not permitted within the structure

21

Type five: Frame construction:

In type V construction, The entire structure may be constructed of wood for any other approved material. Type V was called woodframe in the past, because Woodcliff usually the least expensive material for the job. The high cost of lumber has led to an increase in lightweight combustible composites, and to the use of lightweight steel for studs. How well wood structural members will resist the effects of fire is directly related to their mass.
Hash the 6X 10 – inch floor joists type for building can be expected to support the floor for sometime when exposed to a fire. Light waitresses may fail in minutes.
– Type the construction is subdivided into protected and on protected types, again depending on the protection provided for the structural elements.

22

Performance codes:

Firewalls, fire barriers, and fire partitions are all designed to resist the spread of fire, but they are not the same thing. Firewalls are structurally independent and separate buildings. For your barriers and fire partitions are constructed within a building and separate fire areas, or block the passage of heat and smoke from corridors or other areas.
– Modern building codes are for the most part performance coach. Rather than specify the exact construction of a components such as a firewall, the codes identify a performance feature. Where is the specification code might require all firewalls to be of a certain thickness of masonry block, a performance merely code identifies the performance required, such as resisting the passage of heat and some for a given time.

23

Performance –based design:

Performance-based design is an alternative method for satisfying the fire protection and life safety intent of construction codes. The ICC performance code for buildings and facilities finds performance-based design as:
– And engineering approach to design elements of a building based on agreed upon performance goals and objectives, engineering analysis, and quantitative assessment of alternatives against the design goals and objectives are using excepted engineering tools, methodologies, and performance criteria

24

The international forum of fire research directors issued a position paper on performance based design for firecode applications.

In March 2007, research directors issued a position paper on performance-based design for firecode applications. This title is slightly confusing. The paper address is performance-based to sign for safety aspects of building codes. The committee noted the limited potential use for performance based design:
– For the majority of traditional buildings with flow has heard occupancies, modern prescriptive building, and fire codes, when enforced, achieve this objective. Nontraditional buildings including many of societies largest and iconic structures, such as opera houses, museums, sports stadiums, transportation centers, super high right structures, and some government buildings.

25

Prescriptive codes:

Prescriptive codes do not adapt rapidly to changing materials and methods of construction, nor too radical architectural designs; and prescriptive code based upon historical lost experiences are not designed to deal with very low probability, very high impact events for other threats such as from terrorism

26

What is fuel load or fire load?

It is the total amounts of combustible material within a fire area, expressed in terms of pounds per square foot. The fire load concept dates back to early test of columns, wall and other building components by the Bureau of standards – now NIST-

27

Cook County administration building fire:

Into thousand and three, a fire that started in the storage room of the cook County, Illinois, administration building resulted in six fatalities and several injuries. The 37 story type one fire resistive building was constructed under a 1960 edition model code and was not protected with automatic sprinklers. NIST scientist work requested to model the fire as part of the overall investigation of the incident
– The difference in heat released by the paper/cardboard stack and the trashcan and letter trays. The test results_Dr. Bukowsky's comments on the value of heat release rate

28

Fuel load and fire behavior:

As Dr. Bukowsky noted, fuel load is the total amount of available fuel within the fire area, but he release rate is a better indicator of fire severity. Both factors are critical in developing and implementing a strategy to provide for the safety of the occupants, and to confine and extinguish the fire.
– A room and contents fire involving common combustible materials in a noncombustible one story building is entirely different from the exact same fire on the first floor of a multistory frame built. Both started with the same materials, but in the case of the combustible frame building, the building itself is a part of the fuel load.

29

Fire protection systems:

Fire protection systems is a broad term that includes built in extinguishing systems such as automatic sprinklers, clean agent extinguishing systems, fire detection and alarm devices, smoke control and equipment, fixed extinguishing systems for cooking operations and industrial equipment, and even portable devices such as fire extinguishers. Each is designed for a specific hazard and is installed in accordance with a standard to address that hazard
– Note: if the hazard changes, the fire protection system must be reevaluated to determine its potential effectiveness given a new condition.

30

The presence or absence of fire alarm, fire extinguisher, and other fire protection systems:

This will have a direct impact on the strategy and tactics of the incident commander, as will there effectiveness and operational readiness. The lack of a working fire alarm system moves notification of the occupants to the top of the incident commanders priorities. Lack of a working sprinkler system places the responsibility of confining the fire squarely on the shoulders of the incident commander. In both cases, operational fire protection systems would have shift at the fire department's role to that ensuring that all the occupants were able to self evacuate or shelter with them, and mopping up the fire.
– By adequately preplanning these buildings, fire officers will have a superior advantage to knowing what type and how to access the protection system

31

NFPA 30 and 30 B

Standards that pertain to flammable and combustible liquids code and NFPA 30 B, code for the manufacture and storage of aerosol products

32

NFPA 13 sprinkler systems:

NFPA 13 systems are by far the most commonly found in stalled in buildings in the United States.

33

NFPA 13 D:

Installation of sprinkler systems in one and two family dwellings and manufactured homes

34

NFPA 13 R:

Installation of sprinkler systems in the residential occupancies up to and including four stories in height

35

NFPA 25:

Inspection, testing and maintenance of water-based fire protection systems

36

All responders and fire officers should understand the NFPA 704 Placard system.

This system shows three principal categories of markings:
– Blue is for the health category
– Red is the flammability category
– Yellow represents the instability category

37

What is a major cause of sprinkler system failures?

Closed valves.
Fire officers should make it a habit to observe the condition of the exterior sprinkler valve and ensure that they are on.

38

Standard automatic sprinklers are designed to operate at specific temperatures:

Ordinary temperature rated heads that operate at between 135° and 170° are required to be installed throughout buildings unless the area is subject to high heat conditions.
– Boiler rooms, skylights, attic spaces, and areas above certain machinery and equipment made all require the use of sprinkler heads that have higher operating temperatures.
– The standard attempts to minimize the amount of time that it takes for the sprinkler system to discharge water on the fire by requiring that ordinary temperature heads be installed. This is important to fire spread is to be checked and early notification accomplished.

39

What is thermal lag?

Thermal lag is the difference between the operating temperature of a fire detection device such as a sprinkler head and the actual air temperature when the device activates.
– It is minimized by designing sprinkler heads and other detection devices with less mass and greater surface area.

40

Sprinkler head spacing and discharge per square foot as density are dependent upon occupancy classification:

Occupancy classes are based on the amount and combustibility of the contents and processes that occur within the building

41

NFPA 13R sprinkler systems versus NFPA 13 systems:

– NFPA 13R systems do not provide the same level of property protection as afforded by NFPA 13 systems
– 13R, or residential Systems provide that combustible void, as well is closets not exceeding 24 ft.² and bathrooms not exceeding 55 ft.². Are not required to be sprinklered.
– Total building area exempted from sprinkler protection has been estimated as high as 67%! The potential property damage resulting from fires that burn around over and under the sprinkler system is significant.
– The possibility of a total loss in the 13R sprinklered building is very real. Hotels, motels, boarding houses, and apartment buildings are typically protected with the NFPA 13R systems

42

NFPA 13 D systems are designed to protect one and two family dwellings.

– Like NFPA 13 R systems, they are primarily designed to protect by preventing flashover from occurring in giving the occupants time to escape. They have similar limitations to NFPA 13 R systems,

43

Types of sprinkler systems:

There are four basic types of sprinkler systems. What differentiates them is the method in which water is supplied to the system. The four types are wet pipe, try pipe, pre-action, and deluge. Each has a specific applications and systems specific requirements from the sprinkler standards and in a few cases from the building codes themselves

44

Wet pipe sprinklers:

A wet pipe sprinkler system is by far the most commonly found system in most jurisdictions. Water enters the sprinkler system from a dedicated supply or Fireline, unless the system is a limited area sprinkler system or a system designed to protect one and two family dwellings and manufactured homes. The supply valve is left open and water at Street pressure is always on the system. For this reason, they are the quickest at getting water on the fire and are the simplest to maintain
– Wet pipe systems are installed where indoor temperatures can be maintained at 40°. Below the temperature, there is the danger of freezing pipes.
– Anti-freeze systems are sometimes used were freezing is expected, but these systems are usually limited to 40 gallons or less. Each year, anti-freeze systems must be drained into containers and anti-freeze solution must be replenished to restore the specific gravity required to prevent freezing. This is costly and labor intensive.
– The wet pipe systems advantage of getting water to the fire area quickly, is also its weakness in areas where water damage is of great concern damage from machinery such as forklifts or from vandals can lead to the soaking a valuable equipment, artifacts, merchandise or records.

45

Dry pipe systems:

Dry pipe sprinkler systems are installed in warehouses, parking garage is, factories, and other buildings where there's a danger of freezing. They may also be installed in unheated attics or portions of buildings where providing heat is impractical. Dry pipe valve is installed at the sprinkler riser and keeps water out of the system piping until a fire activates a sprinkler head or heads.
– Dry pipe valves are designed so that a moderate amount of air pressure in the system above the valve is capable of holding back a much greater water pressure. The ratio of air pressure to water pressure at which the valve will open for trip is called the differential.
– Dry pipe systems are equipped with two pressure gauges. One gauge measures the incoming water pressure below the dry pipe valve, and the other measures air pressure on the system above the valve.

46

Pre-action sprinkler systems:

These are installed and properties where potential water damage from broken piping or sprinkler heads is of particular concern. Pre-action systems are dry systems in which the water supply valve is opened on a signal from detection devices such as heat for smoke detectors. The potential for accidental water damage is minimized snow water is in the system was a detection device has been activated for the valve is manually opened
– The sprinkler heads in a pre-action system are traditionally closed hits, which must be fused by to open, discharging water only over the fire. Early notification also minimizes water damage associated with suppression of the fire since an alarm is transmitted upon activation of the detection device, which precedes the fusing of sprinkler heads and activation of the sprinkler flow switch

47

Deluge sprinkler systems:

These are installed an extra hazard occupancies where there is the possibility of a flash fire or fire growth so rapid that the response of a standard sprinkler system is too low. So it is with large quantities of flammable liquids or materials that pose a Deflagration hazard are protected with these systems.
– The activation of the system is designed to apply water over the entire area covered by the system, rapidly and simultaneously. Tell you systems or dry systems that use open sprinkler heads and a deluge valve.
– The deluge valve operates much like the supply valve in a pre-action system. When activated by a fire detection device, the deluge valve automatically opens and water is discharged from all of the heads. Manual activation is also provided.
– Aircraft hangers, flammable liquid tank of vehicle loading racks, and industrial facilities process flammable or explosive materials are among those protected by the systems

48

Standpipe sprinkler systems

Buildings under construction or generally required to have at least one standpipe or temporary standpoint, capable of flowing 500 GPM within one floor of the top of the building.

49

Fire department connections – FDC:

Fire department connections are required for all water-based fire extinguisher and systems and standpipe systems with the exception of limited area sprinkler systems of less than 20 heads and NFPA 13D sprinkler systems

50

Wet and dry chemical extinguishing systems:

Wet and dry chemical extinguishing systems are used in various applications including range hood and duct fire protection, paint spray booth protection, and even on attended self-service motor vehicle fueling sites.
– Each as a standard that addresses the design, installation, and maintenance of the system. The use for significant mechanisms of extinguishing fires:
– Smothering
– Cooling
– Radiation
– Shielding
– Chain breaking

51

Halogenated into clean agent fire extinguishing systems:

Hey lawn and other extinguishing agents that do not leave a residue are the agent of choice for certain high-value commodities and equipment. Halogenated extinguishing agents, or Halen, or chemical compounds that contain carbon and one or more elements from the halogen series – fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine.
– Two compounds, halon 1211 and halon 1301, are defective extinguishing agents and are considered non-toxic

52

Under the clean air act, the US government banned the production and importation of Halon's 1211 and 1301:

January 1, 1994. This band did not affect the continued use of halon systems, and replacement halon can be purchased for existing systems. In light of the government ban on manufacture and importation, other clean extinguishing agents such as Great Lakes corporations FM 200, DuPont's FE – 13, and ansuls intergen were developed.

53

Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems:

Carbon dioxide is one of the most plentiful compounds on earth. It is a byproduct of combustion and fermentation. We exhale carbon dioxide with every breath. It is cheap, leaves no residue in to say hi Leif active extinguishing agent for class B and class C fires.
– The major drawback to carbon dioxide systems is that carbon dioxide and concentrations of over about 9% will render persons unconscious almost immediately. So they are not suited for the total flooding of computer rooms and other occupied areas.

54

NFPA 12:

The standard on carbon dioxide extinguishing systems.
– Installation, maintenance, and testing procedures.

55

Fixed foam systems and water spray systems:

Fixed foam and water spray systems are generally installed to protect hazards outside of buildings. Foam systems protect flammable liquid storage facilities and water spray systems are generally for exposure protection. Both have associated NFPA standards and specific acceptance tests that should always be witnessed by code officials, preferably by the end user, the fire department.

56

NFPA 12A:

Standard on Healon 1301 fire extinguishing systems

57

NFPA 14:

Standard for the installation of standpipes and hose systems

58

NFPA 15:

Standard for Waterspray fixed systems for fire protection

59

NFPA 17:

Standard for dry chemical extinguishing systems

60

NFPA 17 a:

Standard for wet chemical extinguishing systems

61

NFPA 72:

National fire alarm code
– Fire alarm systems are required in building so that occupants will receive prompt notification to evacuate, or in the case of institutional occupancies, to take appropriate action.
– Fire alarm components are required in specific locations in all buildings. Smoke detectors are required in elevator lobbies to ensure the elevators do not return to the fire floor. Air handling units over 2000 CFM must automatically shut down upon and activation of a duct smoke detector installed upstream from the air handler. Smoke alarms are required in residential occupancies and must be interconnected within individual dwelling units.
– Of the design, installation and maintenance of fire alarm systems are regulated by NFPA 72, the national fire alarm code. Unlike most humans, fire alarm systems are quite good at doing several things at once

62

Fire alarm systems are comprised of a series of devices and circuits normally linked by a control panel.

Detection devices sense the presence of heat or smoke, sprinkler flow or manual activation buy a building occupants, and signal the control panel.
– Signaling device is displayed audio and visual signals to the building occupants that there is a potential or actual fire in the building. Fire alarm systems also perform auxiliary functions such as elevator recall, automatic actuation of smoke removal or stairwell pressurization fans and shutdown of certain air handlers. The system may also notify the fire department or a central station monitoring company.
– Fire alarm systems range in size from the single station battery powered smoke alarm found in an existing one story home, to a complex system in a high-rise building. Future has detection devices, signaling devices, and the control center. In the five dollar battery powered unit, they are all housed in a 6 inch plastic box. In a high-rise building, the circuitry may go for miles and cost many thousands of dollars

63

Smoke control systems and smoke and heat vents:

Systems that control the movement of smoke or provide for the rapid exhaust of smoke are required in atriums, covered malls, hI piled combustible storage facilities, underground structures and large theaters. High-rise buildings and malls are required to provide manual controls for all air handling equipment so that firefighters can use the equipment for ventilation of the structure
– Smoke and heat vents are required in large factory and storage buildings where the length of exit excess travel is long, or over stages due to the large quantity of combustible six. Curtain boards, which extends from the ceiling a minimum of 6 feet but not within 8 feet of the floor, are installed to return the lateral movement of smoke and gases.
– Smoke and heat fans must operate automatically and me be required to be provided with a means for manual activation by the fire department

64

What are some key issues with firefighter operations?

– Staffing – the first alarm response provides a small attack force with limited capabilities. The full response brought only 10 personnel
– Size up – the first arriving company officer was not able to determine the location and extent of the hidden fire
– Pre-emergency plan information – this complex required a pre-emergency plan due to the complex arrangement, multiple occupancies, mixed construction, lack of fixed protection, limited access and difficult water supply problems.

65

Duplication of or gaps in protection:

NFPA 550 outlines a concept called the fire safety concept tree.
– This concept shows the link between fire prevention activities and fire damage control strategies.
– Provides an all overall structure with which to analyze potential impact of various codes and standards on a particular safety problem.
– Departments can use this model as a way to communicate with building designers to assist in developing the role of fire protection requirements within a structure.
– Often times this communication does not take place and there can be a duplication of fire protection features with a building. In contrast, failure to communicate effectively can lead to gaps in fire protection

66

Fire behavior:

As a fire officer, you should also thoroughly understand fire behavior.
– Fire behavior is a term used to define the way fire performs for reacts and given situations. Every fire is unique, but there are some general concepts that help us better understand fire behavior.