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Flashcards in Co. Officer Ch.8 Deck (36):

Leading causes of accidents among fire service personnel are:

According to an article in a fire service magazine, leading causes of accidents among fire service personnel are managers who do not manage, supervisors who do not supervise, and firefighters who do dumb things.
– Safety is an organization value. Firefighters have long head of a high rate of heart and respiratory disease as well as cancer. Firefighters providing medical emergency care may be exposed to a wide range of biological hazards.


Fire ground fact:

In the United States, approximately 100 firefighters are killed, and approximately 80,000 are injured each year while on duty.


Because the courts hold the supervisor responsible for the firefighter safety:

Company officers should be intimately involved with the departments health and safety program.
– Most injuries occur to firefighters. Most firefighters have a company officer as their supervisor. Most fire departments, several NFPA standards, and the courts hold the supervisor responsible for the firefighter safety.


Although the number of fatalities and injuries has decreased by 15% over the past 20 years:

The rate of these losses – the number of injuries per fire call – has increased by 25%.
– In the past decade, several high-profile incidents involving firefighter fatalities have brought the publics attention to the issue of firefighter mortality.
Although the attention from the national media was fleeting, the awareness of these events has changed the fabric of the fire service and prompted many organizations and fire departments to initiate programs to protect firefighters


The value of safety:

You Cannot put a value on safety, but you sure can't put a price on the consequences. Regardless whether the firefighters a paid or a volunteer member, injuries cost money.
– An injured $20 in our firefighters actually costing the community $50 an hour because of the overtime costs to the department. Additional costs include medical insurance, worker's Compensation insurance, and repairs for damaged equipment.
There are additional impacts – indirect costs – if it cannot be measured in dollars. For the injured firefighter, there is the pain, suffering, possible permanent injury, and even the embarrassment that comes from the injury. The firefighters working colleagues also suffer, not only in working additional shifts for the injured teammate but also in the emotional costs associated with their sympathy for her friend. And finally, the injured firefighter's family pays the cost for these things, support, and concerns associated with the members injury.


What does the NFPA 1500 deal with?

It is the standard on fire department occupational safety and health program.


Awareness of workplace safety and health issues date back to?

In the United States, awareness of workplace safety and health issues date back to the 1600s. Textbooks on industrial safety usually include a history of workplace safety concerns dating back to the start of recorded history.
– As technology advanced, so did the hazards. The demand for steam power increased with the arrival of the industrial age. With the increased need for power, there was an increased demand for Cole. Most of the cool had to be mined, which was and still is dangerous work. Long hours, poor than Alicia, and extremely demanding work conditions to black lung disease and a host of other problems.
– Efforts to bring some balance to the mining industry started in the 1860s. It took 60 years and the full efforts of both the United mine workers of America and the US Congress to increase the use of safety appliances in the coal mines.


An overview of the 119 firefighters who died while on duty in 2007:

68 volunteer firefighters and 50 career firefighters died while on duty. Heart attacks were the most frequent cause of death for 2007, resulting in 52 firefighter deaths.


The Workplace changed as the United States became more industrialized and technology improved:

Instead of a company focusing on production at any cost, worker safety was also considered. In many instances, a process change brought on by a concern for safety also brought increased productivity.
– During the early years of the Industrial Revolution, gears and belts were unguarded. Workers were frequently required to place themselves in danger situations. When workers were injured, they were replaced with little or no compensation. The growth of organized labor and the development of laws dealing with workplace conditions started a process that continues today.


One industry that has made remarkable progress in the area of workers in recent times is:

Americas railroads, possibly print prodded by the government, they are labor unions, and the cost of workplace accidents, have made a dramatic change in their accident statistics over recent years. These improvements were accomplished by eliminating unsafe equipment and procedures, having and enforcing policies that provides for safety, and by having highly viable recognition programs all levels that reinforce both the company and the industries commitment to work her health and safety.


Northfolk Southern corporation:

One of the nations largest railroad companies. Recognized by government and industry for safety practices, started the process in 1987 of training top executives in the principles of industrial safety, including the concept that teamwork is required to reduce accidents. Since implementation, the team worked as reduced injuries 80%.
– As a result the company has earned the industries highest safety award each of the past 15 years.
– Safety gets top priority. If school is simple: zero accidents and injuries.
– All injuries can be prevented
– All exposures can be safeguarded
– Prevention of injuries and accidents are the responsibility of each employee
– Training is essential for good safety performance
– Safety is a condition of employment
– Safety is good business


How do we increase safety in the work environment?

Safety comes from eliminating unsafe equipment and procedures, having and enforcing policies that provide for safety, and having a viable recognition programs at all levels that reinforce both the companies and the industries commitment to worker health and safety


What two stressors cause many fatalities in the fire organization?

Physiological and psychological stress. Manifested as a heart attack or stroke, rather than some traumatic event.
– The work can be very demanding at times it is often undertaken in unfamiliar settings and uncertain outcome. These facts suggest proper rest, good physical condition, proper healthcare, and proper lifestyle are just as important as protective clothing and an effective incident command system


Fire ground facts:

– Nearly half of all on-duty firefighter fatalities are the result of a heart attack.
– Nearly half of those killed during structural firefighting operations were advancing hose lines at the time of their injury


What is the national fallen firefighters foundation?

The national phone firefighters foundation has launched a national initiative to bring prevention to the forefront. It recognizes the need to do more to prevent line of duty death and injuries.
– The foundation will play a major role in helping the US fire administration meet it's stated goal to reduce the number of preventable firefighter fatalities


Annual NFPA reports on firefighter safety:

Each year, the NFPA publishes two reports on firefighter safety. One reports focuses on firefighter injuries; the other on firefighter fatalities. Both reports are published in the NFPA journal these reports provided valuable lessons learned and should be reviewed by all fire service personnel


What are the 16 firefighter life safety initiatives?

Define and advocate the need for a cultural change within the fire service related to safety, incorporating leadership, management, supervision, accountability, and personal responsibility
– Enhance the personal and organizational accountability for health and safety throughout the fire service
– Focus greater attention on the integration of risk management with incident management at all levels, including strategic, tactical, and planning responsibilities
– All firefighters must be empowered to stop unsafe practice
– Develop and implement national standards for training, qualifications and certifications including regular recertification that are equally applicable to all firefighters based on the duties they are expected to perform
– Develop and implement national medical and physical fitness standards that are equally applicable to all firefighters, based on the duties they are expected to perform
– Create a national research agenda and data collection system that relates to the initiatives
– Utilize available technology wherever it can produce higher level of health and safety
– Thoroughly investigate all firefighter Teletubbies, injuries, and near misses
– Grant programs should support the implementation of safe practices and/or Mandate safe practices as an eligibility requirement
– National standards for emergency response policies and procedures should be developed and championed
– National protocols for response to violent incidents should be developed and championed
– firefighters and their families must have access to counseling and psychological support
– Public education must receive more resources and he championed as a critical fire and life safety program
– Advocacy must be strengthened for the enforcement of codes and the installation of home fire sprinklers
– Safety must be a primary consideration in the design of apparatus and equipment


US fire administration goals:

– A 25% reduction in on duty firefighter fatalities within five years
– A 50% reduction in on duty firefighter fatalities within 10 years


Safety professionals look at past statistics for several reasons:

– First, they provide considerable information about what causes the accidents that lead to firefighter deaths and injuries.
– Secondly the published safety statistics are indications of the activities that are causing the greatest problems for the fire service at the national level.
– These statistics can indicate problems that may not be apparent in a particular department.


Understanding of the nature of the injuries:

– The largest percentage of firefighter injuries and deaths occur at the scene of fires. However, statistics show that every aspect of the firefighters work routine has the potential for injury.
– Each year, a significant number of firefighters are killed and injured while responding to and returning from Kohl's, as well as at the scene of emergency.
– Note that while firefighter fatalities have declined over the last 30 years, the number in all categories have remained fairly constant over the past decade
– With departments provide a greater variety of service to their communities, firefighters are also being injured at the scene of non-fire emergency. Many injuries occur at fire stations. Injuries and even a few deaths occurred during training activities.


Reducing these injuries:

– Sprains and strains can be reduced but proper physical conditioning and by using properly. Effective supervision in the fire scene management can also help reduce the firefighters injuries falling and from exposure to sharp objects and other dangerous conditions that exist on the fire ground.


Theory of accident causes:

Accidents can be defined as unplanned occurrences that results in injuries, fatalities, and damage to for loss of equipment and property.
– Preventing accidents is extremely difficult in the absence of an understanding of the causes of accidents


Domino theory?

Herbert Heinrich developed his widely held theory in the 1920s, while working for travelers insurance. He suggested a five factor exiting sequence in which each factor would actuate the next step in the manner of toppling Domino's wind up in a row. The sequence of accident factors is as follows:
– Ancestry and social environment
– Unsafe practice – personal fault
– Unsafe actions or condition
– Accident
– Damage or injury – loss
– In the same way that the removal of a single domino in a row would interrupt the sequence of toppling, and Rick suggested that removal of one of the factors would prevent the accident and resulting injury. He noted that the third element, unsafe acts, would two nearly 90% of all accidents.


Human factors theory:

Another popular theory is called the human factors. This theory also promotes the idea that most accidents are the result of human error and suggests that three broad factors to accidents:
– Overload– Overload might be affected by the environmental conditions, internal factors, and situational factors such as the level of risk for the lack of good instructions and supervision
– Inappropriate response – examples might include the removal of safety guards or ignoring safety instruction
– Inappropriate activity – an example might be persons taking on a task for which they are not qualified, misjudging the degree of risk involved, and not telling their supervisor that they are not able to do the task


Multiple causation theory:

Multiple causation theory is an outgrowth of the domino theory, but suggest that for a single accident there may be many contributory factors. According to this theory, the contributory factors can be grouped into two categories:
– Behavioral – this category includes factors pertaining to the worker, such as in proper attitude, lack of knowledge, lack of skills, and in adequate physical and mental condition.
Environmental – this category includes improper guarding of other hazardous work elements and degradation of equipment through careless use and unsafe procedures
– The major contribution of this theory is to show that rarely, if ever, is an accident the result of a single cause or act.


Pure chance theory:

According to the pier chance theory, everyone of any given set of workers has an equal chance of being involved in an accident. It further implies that there is no single discernible pattern of events that leads to an accident. In this theory, all accidents are treated as acts of God, and there are no existing interventions to prevent them.


Symptoms versus causes theory:

The symptoms versus causes theory is not so much the theory as an admonition to be heeded if accident causation is to be understood. Usually, when investigating accidents, we tend to fasten upon the obvious causes of the accident to the neglect of the root causes. Unsafe acts and unsafe conditions are often the symptoms – the proximate causes – and not the root causes of the accident.


Structure of accidents:

The belief that accidents are caused and can be prevented suggest that we studied those factors that are likely to favor the occurrence of accidents. A good example is the study of that follows any large – loss fire.
– By studying such factors, the root causes of accidents can be isolated, and necessary steps can be taken to prevent the recurrence of the accidents. These root causes can be grouped as immediate and contributing. The immediate causes are unsafe acts of the worker and unsafe working conditions. Contributing causes could be management related factors, The environment, and the physical and mental condition of the worker.


Summary of accident causation theory:

Accident causation is a very complex field. No one theory dominates; in fact, many theories are commonly taught. From all of these, we can learn two things:
– Accidents do not just happen, and through good preventative action, we can prevent many accidents.


What is the national firefighter near miss reporting system?

It is a voluntary, confidential, nonpunitive, and secure reporting system with the goal of improving firefighters.
– Submitted reports will be reviewed by fire service professionals. Identifying descriptions are removed to protect your identity. The report is then posted on this website for other firefighters to use as a learning tool.
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Regulatory and standards setting bodies:

There are several federal and non-governmental entities that have distinguished standards related to firefighting and firefighter safety.
– The occupational safety and health administration /OSHA is a regulatory agency under the US department of labor that was created by Congress in 1970. It's rule is to work with employers and workers to reduce workplace hazards and to implement new, or to improve existing, workplace Health and safety programs. One of OSHA's functions is to develop and enforce mandatory job safety and health standards


The national Institute of occupational safety and health/ and NIOSH:

And agency of the department of health and human services that conducts research on various safety and health problems, provides technical assistance to OSHA, and recommend standards for OSHA's adoption. NIOSH Establishes permissible exposure limits to chemicals and other workplace hazards, and tests and approves self-contained breathing apparatus.


The US environmental protection agency/EPA:

EPA has created several regulations that affect firefighters in the area of hazardous materials response. The superfund amendments and reauthorization act Sara, of 1986 got the EPA involved in regulating response to hazardous material incident. Title one of SARA includes the emergency planning and community right to know act, which requires the EPA to work with states and localities to plan for hazardous materials incidents and to give communities the tools to obtain information about hazards in their localities. Under this section, businesses and citizens who store hazardous materials are required to inform the fire department about the types of materials, the quantities, and their hazards.


The US Department of transportation/DOT:

And agency involved in firefighter health and safety issues in several ways.
– First, DOT regulates the construction, testing, and maintenance of compressed gas cylinders.
– Second, DOT has umbrella authority for developing hazardous materials transportation safety policy and helps provide sources of funding for hazardous materials training.
– The hazardous materials transportation uniform safety act of 1990, directed DOT to collect registration fees from shippers and carriers of hazardous materials. These funds are then put into a national grants program to help train emergency responders to deal with hazardous materials incidents.
– DOT has also established requirements for drivers of certain motor vehicles including fire trucks in some states to obtain commercial drivers license.
– Finally, DOT has established standards for training of emergency medical responders as well as standards for equipment carried on ambulance.


The national fire protection Association/NFPA:

Although NFPA has no regulatory enforcement powers, it serves an extremely important function by bringing together experts to write and update standards that affect firefighting and fire protection.
– The NFPA works through a consensus process, which means that experts and interested parties representing different points of view our assigned to a technical committee where they present and D bait ideas and ultimately agreed on the most reasonable language for each standard.


Fire department occupational safety and health program:

In 1987, the membership of NFPA adopted a new and somewhat controversial document entitled NFPA 1500. The standard on fire department occupational safety and health program.
It was the start of a major undertaking; it provided a framework for a series of new standards that would help for departments plan, implement, and manage effective health and safety programs.
NFPA 1500 was designed to help fire departments reduce the frequency and severity of of accidents and injuries to their members. It has increased the awareness level about safety in every aspect of the job. Equipment has changed, procedures have changed, and new incident management system and personnel accountability have been added.