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Flashcards in Affective Disorders Deck (11):

What are the rates of depression?

- twice as likely In females (society and biology)


What are the 4 main symptoms of MDD?

1. Affective mood symptoms
- depressed mood, feeing of guilt, worthlessness

2. Behavioural symptoms (social withdrawal, agitation)

3. Cognitive symptoms (concentration or decision making)

4. Somatic or physical (insomnia or hypersomnia)

Psychomotor retardation


What is bipolar?

one or more manic episodes accompanied by periods of depression
- elevated mood to point of euphoria



What are the 2 types of bipolar?

TYPE 1 - at least one manic or mixed episode, have at least one depressive state

TYPE 2 - only hypo mania


What is the treatment of bipolar?

Mood stabilizer - mutes the intensity of one pole making the other less likely to occur

LITHIUM may increase serotonin release
VALOPRATE - may stimulate GABA


What are the three classes or antidepressants?

MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS (MAO) - block the enzyme that break down neurotransmitters in the axon terminal

TRICYCLICS ANTIDEPRESSANT - first gem with a three ring chemical structure that block reputable of seretonin

SECOND GEN - similar to first gen but is more selective of Im action of seretonin reputake


What are the 2 phases of SSRIS?

Acute: little or no post synaptic effect
- more serotonin auto receptor activation, reduction in synthesis and release
- reputake blocked

Chronic: auto receptors down regulated (more release)
- reputake blocked more


What are the hypothesis of mood disorders?

MONOAMINE hypothesis
Serotonin hypothesis
Glucocorticoid hypothesis
Neurotrophic hypothesis
Cytosine hypothesis


What is the MONOAMINE hypothesis?

Reduced levels of monoamines are responsible

1. Resperine induces depression
2. Tryptophan depletion challenge causes relapse in remitted depressed patients


Why is the seretonin hypothesis not enough?

1. Depletion does not cause depression in healthy individuals

2. Not everyone is helped from antidepressants



What are the 2 affective disorders?

MDD (unipolar)
Bipolar depression
- characterized by extreme and i appropriate exaggeration of mood or affect