Flashcards in Affective Disorders Deck (11):
What are the rates of depression?
- twice as likely In females (society and biology)
What are the 4 main symptoms of MDD?
1. Affective mood symptoms
- depressed mood, feeing of guilt, worthlessness
2. Behavioural symptoms (social withdrawal, agitation)
3. Cognitive symptoms (concentration or decision making)
4. Somatic or physical (insomnia or hypersomnia)
What is bipolar?
one or more manic episodes accompanied by periods of depression
- elevated mood to point of euphoria
What are the 2 types of bipolar?
TYPE 1 - at least one manic or mixed episode, have at least one depressive state
TYPE 2 - only hypo mania
What is the treatment of bipolar?
Mood stabilizer - mutes the intensity of one pole making the other less likely to occur
LITHIUM may increase serotonin release
VALOPRATE - may stimulate GABA
What are the three classes or antidepressants?
MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS (MAO) - block the enzyme that break down neurotransmitters in the axon terminal
TRICYCLICS ANTIDEPRESSANT - first gem with a three ring chemical structure that block reputable of seretonin
SECOND GEN - similar to first gen but is more selective of Im action of seretonin reputake
What are the 2 phases of SSRIS?
Acute: little or no post synaptic effect
- more serotonin auto receptor activation, reduction in synthesis and release
- reputake blocked
Chronic: auto receptors down regulated (more release)
- reputake blocked more
What are the hypothesis of mood disorders?
What is the MONOAMINE hypothesis?
Reduced levels of monoamines are responsible
1. Resperine induces depression
2. Tryptophan depletion challenge causes relapse in remitted depressed patients
Why is the seretonin hypothesis not enough?
1. Depletion does not cause depression in healthy individuals
2. Not everyone is helped from antidepressants