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Flashcards in Chapter 7 - Research Methods Deck (14):
1

What are the 3 types of neuropsychological testing?

1. CORSI BLOCK-TAPPING TEST
- short term recall of spatial position
- series of blocks, only scientist can see the number

2. MIRROR DRAWING TEST
- procedural memory (implicit memory of learning to do something)
- drawing a start in a mirror

3. RECENT MEMORY TASK
- identify which item they've seen most recently
- some people can say which they say first or that it's familiar but not vice versa

2

How do researchers identify molecular, neuro chemical and structural differences among neurons?

Histological stains.
- stained brain can identify cell bodies when viewed with light microscope
- reveals neurons entire structure
- view synapses

3

What is the clearest example of neuronal/behavioural relation?

Parkinson's - cells in substantia nigra died

4

What are the 2 types of stains?

NISAN STAIN
Golgi stain - you see behaviour lost and if there is cell loss it increases knowledge

5

What is behavioural neuroscience?

1. The study of the biological basis of behaviour
2. Major challenge is to develop methods for studying both normal and abnormal behaviour
3. Includes study of both humans and laboratory animals

6

What is the study of animal behaviour?

Ethology

7

What is the Morris (1980) swimming task?

Rats placed in large swimming pool where there is an escape platform invisible below the surface of the water.

1. Place learning (must find platform using external cues)
2 matching to place task
3. Landmark-learning task

8

What is the skilled reaching task?

Test in rats done by kolb and Whislaw.
- rats trained to reach through slot to obtain food
- movements can be broken down into segments of NEUROLOGICAL PERTUBATION

9

How can we measure and manipulate brain-behaviour interaction?

Lesion - getting rid of tissue

Stimulation - increase activity of brain

10

What are the types of brain lesion?

ABLATION - removal of destruction of tissue

STEROTAXIC APPARATUS - instrument that permits research to target a certain brain area

1. Electrolytic lesion- current passed through electrode, killing tissue in the region. Also kill nerve FIBERS

2. Neurotoxic lesion - lower canulla, injecting toxin

11

What is AKINESIa?

Motor symptom characterized by Slowness or absence of movement, due to Neurotoxic lesion

12

Who first used brain stimulation?

Wilder penfield

13

What are thec main types of stimulation?

Self stimulation: rats with electrodes in the lateral hypothalamus will press the lever to obtain a current (eating and pleasure)

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)
- Noninvasive procedure in which magnetic coil is placed over the skull to stimulate the brain
(Induce or disrupt behaviour)

OPTOGENETICS: transgenic technoque that combines genetics and light to control targeted cells on living tissue
- light activates proteins

CHR2 when exposed to blue light, ion channel opens causing depolarization

DEEP BRAIN STIMULATION - neurosurgery in which electrodes implanted in the brain stimulate a targeted area with a low voltage electrical current

14

What is neuropsychology?

The study of the relations between brain function and behaviour

- Paul broca was the father, discovered language difficulties in frontal left hemisphere