Chapter 14 - Learning And Memory Flashcards Preview

Neuroscience > Chapter 14 - Learning And Memory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 14 - Learning And Memory Deck (20):
1

Why is neuroplasticity important in learning ?

Because for learning to occur there needs to be small changes in the neurons that "imprint the changes"
- Donald he bb said that cells that fire together wire together
- Eric Handel than showed that there were molecular changes that underlie these behavioural changes

2

What is learning?

A relatively pennant change in behaviour as a result of experience?

3

What is memory?
Mental trace?

The ability to recall or reorganize previous learned experiences

Memory trace is a mental representation of a previous experience (due to physical change at synapses)

4

What is classical conditioning?

Pavlovian conditioning (Ivan Pavlov)
- type of stimulus response learning where a neutral stimulus elicits a response after being paired with an event

5

Example of UCS
CS
UCR
CR

UCS - meat powder
CS - bell
CR - salivation
CR - salivation

6

What is fear conditioning?

Learned association
- a conditioned emotional response between a neutral stimulus and a noxious event
- involves amygdala

7

What is eye blink conditioning?

Experimental technique in which subjects learn to pair a formerly neutral stimulus with a defensive blinking response
- used to stdu learning in rabbits

8

What is operant conditioning?

Instrumental conditioning
- learning procedure in which consequences of a particular behaviour increase or decrease the probability of it occurring again

9

What are Two tests of operant conditioning?

Thorndikes puzzle box
- a hungry cat will eventually learn that pressing a level opens a door to get food

- skinner stufy of reinforcement trained rats and pigeons to press bars to obtain food

10

What are the two categories of memory and how they differ?

Implicit

- unconscious memory
- procedural memory
- demonstrate knowledge such as a skill, knowledge but cannot explicitly retrieve the information
- passive role in tasks

Explicit

- conscious
- declarative
- subject retrieves an item and indicate they retrieved the correct item
- active role in tasks

11

How to code the 2 different memories?

Implicit - bottom-up (encoded same was as perceived)
- sensory systems to CORTex

Explicit - top-down (conceptually driven)
- subject reorganizes info before coded

12

What is priming?

- using a stimulus to sensitive the nervous system to a later presentation of the same or a similar stimulus
- used to measure implicit memory

(Gollin test)

13

What study did Martin and colleagues conduct?

Participants were shown black and white line drawings and asked to generate words denoting either colours or actions of the objects

- recall of colours activated VENTRAL TEMPORAL LOBE

- recall of action words activated MIDDLE TEMPORAL

SHOWS THAT A NHMBER OF AREAS CONTRIUBUTE TO MEMORY

14

What are the types of implicit and explicit memories?

Explicit
- episodic
Personal
- semantic
- skills
- facts

IMPLICIT

- skills
- planning
- facts

15

What are the types of memory and brain regions involved?

Short-term (prefrontal cortex, sensory association areas)

Long term

DECLARATIVE - medial temporal, and frontal
PROCEDURAL - basal ganglia, motor association areas, cerebellum
EPISODIC - frontal lobe
EMOTIONAL - amygdala

16

What is important about personal memories and what was wrong with KC?

Autobiographical memory paired to a time and context and are role in the memory

KC had episodic amnesia in a motorcycle accident, his only issue was recalling episodic memories for his entire life

Hyperthysmetic syndrome is the opposite (a.j)

17

What is amnesia?

A partial or total loss of memory

18

What happened with HM?

Performed a bilateral medial temporal lobe surgery to get rid of epilepsy.
- suffered from severe amnesia (explicit memory)
- had above average iq and could recall childhood events
- good implicit memory
- face recognition was fine (right parrahippo)

19

What Did patient JK do?

- impaired inplicit
- developed Parkinson's in mid 70's (dopaminergic cells in basal ganglia died)
- opposite of hm

20

What is dyslexia?

- an impairment in learning to read and write
- most common learning disability
- far more common in boys
- decreased activation in frontal lobe and left temporroparitel cortex (language areas)