Flashcards in Chapter 14 - Learning And Memory Deck (20):
Why is neuroplasticity important in learning ?
Because for learning to occur there needs to be small changes in the neurons that "imprint the changes"
- Donald he bb said that cells that fire together wire together
- Eric Handel than showed that there were molecular changes that underlie these behavioural changes
What is learning?
A relatively pennant change in behaviour as a result of experience?
What is memory?
The ability to recall or reorganize previous learned experiences
Memory trace is a mental representation of a previous experience (due to physical change at synapses)
What is classical conditioning?
Pavlovian conditioning (Ivan Pavlov)
- type of stimulus response learning where a neutral stimulus elicits a response after being paired with an event
Example of UCS
UCS - meat powder
CS - bell
CR - salivation
CR - salivation
What is fear conditioning?
- a conditioned emotional response between a neutral stimulus and a noxious event
- involves amygdala
What is eye blink conditioning?
Experimental technique in which subjects learn to pair a formerly neutral stimulus with a defensive blinking response
- used to stdu learning in rabbits
What is operant conditioning?
- learning procedure in which consequences of a particular behaviour increase or decrease the probability of it occurring again
What are Two tests of operant conditioning?
Thorndikes puzzle box
- a hungry cat will eventually learn that pressing a level opens a door to get food
- skinner stufy of reinforcement trained rats and pigeons to press bars to obtain food
What are the two categories of memory and how they differ?
- unconscious memory
- procedural memory
- demonstrate knowledge such as a skill, knowledge but cannot explicitly retrieve the information
- passive role in tasks
- subject retrieves an item and indicate they retrieved the correct item
- active role in tasks
How to code the 2 different memories?
Implicit - bottom-up (encoded same was as perceived)
- sensory systems to CORTex
Explicit - top-down (conceptually driven)
- subject reorganizes info before coded
What is priming?
- using a stimulus to sensitive the nervous system to a later presentation of the same or a similar stimulus
- used to measure implicit memory
What study did Martin and colleagues conduct?
Participants were shown black and white line drawings and asked to generate words denoting either colours or actions of the objects
- recall of colours activated VENTRAL TEMPORAL LOBE
- recall of action words activated MIDDLE TEMPORAL
SHOWS THAT A NHMBER OF AREAS CONTRIUBUTE TO MEMORY
What are the types of implicit and explicit memories?
What are the types of memory and brain regions involved?
Short-term (prefrontal cortex, sensory association areas)
DECLARATIVE - medial temporal, and frontal
PROCEDURAL - basal ganglia, motor association areas, cerebellum
EPISODIC - frontal lobe
EMOTIONAL - amygdala
What is important about personal memories and what was wrong with KC?
Autobiographical memory paired to a time and context and are role in the memory
KC had episodic amnesia in a motorcycle accident, his only issue was recalling episodic memories for his entire life
Hyperthysmetic syndrome is the opposite (a.j)
What is amnesia?
A partial or total loss of memory
What happened with HM?
Performed a bilateral medial temporal lobe surgery to get rid of epilepsy.
- suffered from severe amnesia (explicit memory)
- had above average iq and could recall childhood events
- good implicit memory
- face recognition was fine (right parrahippo)
What Did patient JK do?
- impaired inplicit
- developed Parkinson's in mid 70's (dopaminergic cells in basal ganglia died)
- opposite of hm