Aids Flashcards Preview

Allergy, immunology, infection > Aids > Flashcards

Flashcards in Aids Deck (29):
1

Tuberculosis

Presentation:
Test: Stool sample = acid fast bacteria
Prophylaxis: 1200 mg Azithroycin weekly
Tx: 500 mg clarithromycin 2x a day;
Azithromycin 600 mg daily

2

Pneumocystis pneumonia

Presentation: dyspnea, fever, SOB
Test: Chest X-ray showing bilateral ground glass appearance
Prophylaxis: Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX)
Tx: TMP-SMX double strength tabs q 8hrs

3

Toxoplasmosis

Presentation: Head aches, focal neurologic deficits, altered mental status
Test: MRI, showing characteristic lesions
Prophylaxis: TMP-SMX on DS tab daily
TX: Pyrimethamine+sulfadiazine+leucovorin (chemo drugs)

4

Crytococcal meningitis

Presents as fever, malaise, headache, stiff neck, may have rash and cough (usually in pt. with cd4 count

5

Herpes zoster/ simplex

Presents as dermatomal erythematous vesicular eruption
HIV pt. are 20x more likely to develop zoster
Tx: acyclovir

6

cytomegalovirus retinitis

Retinal infection that is seen as hemorrhages and white fluffy exudates. Loss of central vision, or blurry central v.
Prophylaxis: if cd4

7

HIV associated dementia

Patients will have difficulty with cognitive tasks, show decreased motor function, and emotional disturbances. First sign may be a deterioration in hand writing.
Tx: many pt. get better with ART

8

lymphoma (CNS)

symptoms similar to toxoplasmosis. difficult to distinguish between them on imaging, lymphoma will usually show up more often as solitary lesion.
TX: Many patients respond well to radiation therapy

9

Kaposi Sacroma

Erythematous or violet colored plaque-like lesion on skin or mucous membrane. Lesions may appear anywhere!
May appear after initiating ART
Prophylaxis: None
TX: Systemic chemotherapy or alpha-interferon

10

Cervical cancer

HIV pt. are at much higher risk for cervical cancer.
-cervical dysplasia is considered "early symptomatic HIV"
-invasive cervical cancer is an indicator of AIDS
Prophylaxis: screen for cervical cancer and vac. for HPV

11

Vaginal/oral/esophageal candidiasis

vaginal: shows up as white clumpy discharge, often itches or burns
oral: shows up as white lesions on tongue and inner cheeks. Highly suggestive of HIV!
esophageal: similar to oral, pt. may have difficulty swallowing
Prophylaxis: none
Tx: Fluconazole, itraconazole - may develop resistance to fluconzole

12

oral hairy leukoplakia

White, flat or slightly raised lesion on the side of the tongue
Has vertical lines with thick "hairy" projections"
-Caused by EBV
Highly suggestive of HIV

13

enterocolitis

GI problem common to HIV pt.
Pt. may have diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain
examples: Campylobacter, salmonella, giardia, cryptosporidium
Prophylaxis: proper hygiene, avoid raw oysters
Tx: ART, treat per organism, and give hydration

14

Protease inhibitors

MOA: Protease cleaves polyproteins into functional proteins in the late stages of HIV replication, virus stay immature, can't infect

15

Protease inhibitors
Side effects

NVD, kidney stones, jaundice, cerebral hemorrhage, diabetes, hypercholesteremia

16

Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
MOA

Disrupts the construction of proviral HIV DNA so it cannot replicate

17

Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
Side effects

pancreatitis, lipoatrophy, liver toxicity, hepatomegaly, anemia, mitochondrial toxicity, lactic acidosis

18

Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
MOA

block reverse transcriptase by actually binding to the enzyme

19

Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
Side effects

CNS problems (head ache, insomnia, etc)
Rash (as severe as SJS and TEN)
Depression

20

Entry/fusion inhibitors
MOA

Inhibits HIV from entering the cell by disallowing from fusing with the cellular membrane

21

Entry/fusion inhibitors
Side effects

Related to the injection site, pain, erythema, nodules, very common

22

integrase inhibitors
MOA

disrupts integrase and prevents the integration /strand transfer of viral DNA

23

integrase inhibitors
side effects

NVD, dizziness, abnormal dreams, headaches, elevated amylase and LFT

24

Chemokine receptor antagonist (CCR5 antagonist)
MOA

Blocks CCR5 receptor on CD4, thus inhibits viral entry into cell

25

Chemokine receptor antagonist (CCR5)
Side effects

NVD, elevated LFT, hepatitis, UTI, colds, cough, dizziness

26

HIV infection: primary infection

CD4 level dips below 800mmL
-Sx appear 2-6 weeks after exposure
-Sx: fever, NVD,lymphadenopathy, pharangitis, myalgia, thrush, malaise, weight loss

27

HIV infection: asymptomatic stage

CD4 greater than 350
-latent stage
-can last 7-10 years
-no sx

28

HIV infection: symptomatic stage

CD4 greater than 200
-Specific sx:Hairy leukoplakia
Kaposi sarcoma

-Nonspecific:
Fever, Wasting, Night sweats,
lymphadenopathy
Candidiasis,TB, Herpes zoster,
HSV

29

HIV infection: AIDS

CD4 less than 200
-Pneumocystosis
Toxoplasmosis
Cryptococcosis
Coccidioidomycosis
Cryptosporidiosis

CD4 less than 50
Sx:MAC
CMV retinitis
CNS lymphoma