Autoimmune Diseases Flashcards Preview

Allergy, immunology, infection > Autoimmune Diseases > Flashcards

Flashcards in Autoimmune Diseases Deck (19):
1

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Clinical presentation

-Mainly young women of childbearing age
- Multiple organ systems
- Joint symptoms around 90%
- Mallar rash (butterfly) around 50%, rash over areas exposed to sunlight

2

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Immune system malfunction

Exact etiology unknown
Autoimmune disease: multisystem inflammation with generation of autoantibodies
-Auto antibodies

Caused by genetic and environmental stimuli:
- UV exposure
- Microbial response
- Drugs

3

Graves Disease
Clinical presentation

More common in women 8:1
-Goiter w/bruit
-Exophthalmos
-Enlarged thyroid gland
-Onset: 20-40 years
-Diaphoresis, heat intolerance, warm, moist skin, tremor, orange peel sin on the shins and tops of feet

4

Graves Disease
Immune system malfunction

Autoantibodies to thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptors (agonist) --> stimulate thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion -> diffuse goiter

5

Psoriasis
clinical presentation

-Well demarcated bright red wit silvery scales plaques on the flexures (knees and elbows) and scalp
-Nail pitting and onycholysis
-Mild pruritis

6

Psoriasis
Immune system malfunction

T cell mediated hyper proliferation of keratinocytes

7

Multiple sclerosis
Clinical presentation

- Episodic neurologic symptoms
- Pt. usually under 55 years of age at onset
- Weakness, numbness, tingling or unsteadiness in a limb
-Spastic paraparesis
-Retrobulbar optic neuritis, diplopia

8

Multiple sclerosis
Immune system malfunction

Like most, exact etiology unknown
Theory: -inflammatory autoimmune disorder mediated by auto reactive lymphocytes --> dominated by microglial activation and chronic neurodegeneration

9

Crohns Disease
Clinical presentation

-Insidious onset; chronic illness with exacerbation and remission
-Intermittent bouts of low-grade fever, diarrhea, RLQ pain
-Most cases involve small bowel and colon
-1/3 have perianal disease

10

Crowns Disease
Immune system malfunction

Etiology unknown
-Transmural inflammation of the GI tract

11

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Clinica presentation

-polyuria, polydipsia, weight loss
-Plasma glucose:
-Random: >201,
Fast: >127

12

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Immune system malfunction

Autoimmune destruction of the beta cells in the islets of Langerhans, which produce insulin.

13

Cyclosporine (Sandimmune)

MOA: inhibition of production of IL-2, decrease proliferation of T-cells. CALCINEURIN inhibitor
Indication: Kidney, liver, cardiac transplant, also, RA, psoriasis

14

Tacrolimus
(Prograf)

MOA: inhibition of production of IL-2, decrease proliferation of T-cells, CALCINEURIN inhibitor
Indication: Kidney, liver, cardiac transplant, also severe atopic dermatitis

15

azathioprine
Basic drug category
MOA
Indication
Off label use

Imuran
Disease modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD)
Disallows lymphocytes to use key nucleic acids
Anti-metabolite
Indication: Renal transplant, RA.
Off label use: crohns, lupus, MS, Psoriasis

16

mycophenolate mofetil
(CellCept)
Indications:
MOA and basic category

Immunosuppressant used in anti-rejection of organ transplant
MOA: impairs B and T cell proliferation
Antimetabolite
Indications: Heart, liver and kidney transplants

17

adalimumab
(Humira)

antibodies used in transplants for immunosuppression, TNF inhibitor
-aka biologics
indications: allograft survival, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohns disease, psoriasis and RA

18

Daclizumab (Zenapax)

antibodies used in transplants for immunosuppression, against IL-2 receptors in T cells
-aka biologics
Indication: kidney transplant, not currently used in US

19

corticosteroids

MOA unclear. T cells are most affected, decreased production of cytokines and reduced T cell populations