Antibiotic classes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Antibiotic classes Deck (17):
1

Aminoglycosides

MOA: Diffuse through porin channels, bind to Rib 30S, cause misread of genetic code. Bactericidal
Spectrum: Aerobic gram - bacilli
-often used in combo with Beta-lactam

2

Natural Penicillins

MOA: interfers w/ peptidoglycan cell wall synth. prevents cross linkages
Spectrum: Gram + and - cocci, gram + bacilli and spirochetes bacteria

3

Extended spectrum aminopenicillin

Amoxicillin and ampicillin
Spectrum: Similar to natural penicillins (Gram +&- bacilli and gram + bacilli and spirochetes
- but more effective against gram - bacilli (listeria)

4

Penicillinase-resistant

Use is restricted to infections caused by penicillinase-producing staphylococci & methicillin sensitive S. aureus

5

Antipseudomonal penicillin

piperacillin
-work against P. aeruginosa.

6

Cephalosporins 1st gen

MOA: interferes w/ peptidoglycan cell wall synth, more resistant to Beta-lactamases
Spectrum: mostly Gram+ and strep and staph

7

Cephalosporins 2nd gen

MOA: interferes w/ peptidoglycan cell wall synth, more resistant to Beta-lactamases
Spectrum: Gram +, enhanced Gram - and anaerobic

8

Cephalosporins 3rd gen

MOA: interferes w/ peptidoglycan cell wall synth, more resistant to Beta-lactamases
Spectrum: Enhanced gram -, weaker gram +

9

Cephalosporins 4th gen

MOA: interferes w/ peptidoglycan cell wall synth, more resistant to Beta-lactamases
Spectrum: Enhanced gram + and gram -, strep and staph

10

monobactams

MOA: Beta-lactam, more resistant to Beta-lactamase.
- only one fused ring
Spectrum: primarily gram negative,
(Enterobacteriaceae + P. aeruginosa)
- not against: gram + and anaerobes

11

carbapenems

MOA: Beta-lactam, more resistant to Beta-lactamase
-Carbon replaces sulfur atom
Spectrum: Broadest spectrum B-lactam

12

vancomycin

MOA: Inhibits cell wall synthesis in gram + bacteria
Spectrum: B-lactamase inhibitor, (used in combo)
- good for MRSA and MRSE

13

tetracyclines

MOA: Binds reversibly to 30S Rib subunit, inhibiting bacterial protein synth
Spectrum: effective against G+, G-, spirochetes, mycobacteria

14

quinolones

MOA: enter through porin channels, effect DNA gyrase, results in relaxation of supercoiled DNA, promoting strand breakage. Also inhibits topoisomerase 4 impacting chromosomal stabilization during division
Spectrum: Gram - bacteria and gonorrhea

15

macrolides

MOA: Bind irreversably to 50S, inhibits translation steps of protein synth
-Drug of choice as alternate for pt. with penicillin allergies
Spectrum: Gram +, gram-, anerobic
Erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin

16

sulfonamides

MOA: inhibit synthesis of bacterial dihydrofolic acid and thus prevent synthesis of RNA and DNA
Spectrum: Enterobacteriaceae: gram neg, rods, facultative anerobes. Nocardia

17

anaerobic agents

Cephalosporins, glycopeptides, macrolides