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Flashcards in Airway obstruction Deck (8)
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1

Etiology

1. Intraluminal
Foreign body
Blood clot
Vomitus
Sputum
2. Wall
Epiglotittis
Laryngeal edema
Neoplasm
Strictures, granulation, malacia, stenosis
Anaphylaxis
3. Outside
Trauma
Thyroid mass
Neck hematoma

2

Malignant causes of CAO

1. Extension of adjacent tumor w/ airway invasion->esophageal, laryngeal, thyroid
2. Primary intraluminal malignancy->SCC and adenoid cystic carcinoma
3. Endobronchial disease
4. Compression from a contiguous malignant process

3

Symptoms

1. Shortness of breath
2. Cough
3. Hemoptysis
4. Wheeze
5. Stridor

In a ventilated patient:
1. +airway pressures, -ve tidal volumes, hypoxemia and hypercapnia

4

Risk factors

1. Lung cancer
2. Primary airway malignancy
3. Smoking
4. Artifical airways
5. Tracheobronchial stents
6. TE oxygen catheters
7. Lung transplant
8. NeurocogN/NeuroM disorders
9. Granulomatosis w/ polyangitis

5

Investigations

1. CXR
Tracheal deviation, mediastinal shift, post-op pneumonia, atelectasis, collapse
? Consider
2. Bronchoscopy
3. CT scan: look for narrowing, masses, SOL, filling defects
4. MRI: vascular rings, aneurysms, soft tissue masses
5. Spirometry

6

Differential

1. COPD
2. Asthma

7

History

1. Active/past malignancy
2. Critical deseases requiring mechanical ventilation
3. Previous surgical interventions
4. Rheumatological conditions
5. Infections: TB, histoplasmosis
6. Comorbidities: smoking, diabetes, HTN, high ASA
7. Assess aspiration risk

8

Management

1. ABC
Establish secure airway
2. High flow oxygen
3. Consider heliox
4. Bronchodilators