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Flashcards in Approach to hemolysis Deck (19):
1

To find the cause, 4 questions to ask

1) Is there increased RBC breakdown
2) Is there +RBC production
3) Is the hemolysis mainly intravascular or extravascular
4) Why is there hemolysis

2

Indicators of +RBC breakdown

Anemia w/ N or + MCV
+Bilirubin
-ve haptoglobins
+serum LDH

3

Indicators of +RBC production

+Reticulocytes causing +MCV

4

Determining if IV or EV

EV->splenomegaly
IV-> +free Hb, methaemalbuminemia, -ve plasma haptoglobin, hemogobinuria, hemosiderinuria

5

Clinical features

Key factors
presence of risk factors
pallor
jaundice
Other diagnostic factors
fatigue
shortness of breath
dizziness
splenomegaly
active infections
episodic dark urine (haemoglobinuria)
triggered by exposure to cold

6

Important history

Family history
Race
Jaundice
Dark urine
Drugs
Previous anemia
Travel

7

Risk factors

Strong

autoimmune disorders
lymphoproliferative disorders
prosthetic heart valve
family origin in Mediterranean, Middle East, Sub-Saharan Africa, or Southeast Asia
family history of haemoglobinopathy or RBC membrane defects
paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria
recent exposure to cephalosporins, penicillins, quinine derivatives, or NSAIDs
recent exposure to naphthalene or fava beans
thermal injury

Weak
exceptional exertion
recent exposure to nitrites, dapsone, ribavirin, or phenazopyridine
recent paraquat ingestion
malaria
babesiosis
bartonellosis
leishmaniasis
Clostridium perfringens infection
Haemophilus influenzae type B infection
liver disease

8

Physicalexamination

anaemia, jaundice, or splenomegaly,

Physical findings of the underlying causes are diverse and include
->generalised lymphadenopathy in cases of lymphoproliferative disease (chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma);
->specific cutaneous and joint signs in autoimmune disease (SLE, rheumatoid arthritis);
->fever in infectious causes;
->elevated BP in a pregnant patient with pre-eclampsia or HELLP syndrome (haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelet count);
->skeletal deformities in sickle cell anaemia or thalassaemia, due to increases in haematopoiesis and bone expansion during childhood.

9

Initial investigations

1. FBC: low Hb
2. MCHC: increased
3. reticulocyte count: increased reticulocyte percentage (>1.5%), absolute reticulocyte count, and reticulocyte index
4. peripheral smear: abnormal forms such as schistocytes (MAHA), spherocytes (HS, AIHA), elliptocytes, spur cells, blister cells (oxidant), bite cells (oxidant), tear drops; RBC inclusions may occur with malaria, babesiosis, and Bartonella infections
5. unconjugated (indirect) bilirubin: elevated, but not >70 to 85 micromol/L (5 mg/dL) unless liver function is impaired
6. LDH: high
7. haptoglobin: low
8. urinalysis: dipstick positive for blood, no RBCs

10

Other investigations to consider

direct antiglobulin test (DAT or Coombs'): positive suggests immune aetiology; negative suggests non-immune aetiology

creatinine, urea: elevated in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura or haemolytic uraemic syndrome

LFTs: elevated in liver disease

Donath-Landsteiner antibody: present in cold-immune disease

Hb electrophoresis: HbS present in sickle cell disease; elevated levels of HbA2 and HbF in beta thalassaemia

flow cytometry for CD55/CD59: abnormal

glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) fluorescent spot test and spectrophotometry: low G6PD activity

ANA: positive if SLE

11

Acquired causes of hemolytic anemia

1) Immune mediated->coombs test positive
->Drug induced
->AIHA
->Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria
2) Direct coombs negative
->Autoimmune hepatitis
->hepatitis B and C
->Post flu
->Drugs
3) Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia
4) Infection->malaria
5) Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria

12

How does drug induced (CT+ve) cause heolysis

Formation of autoantibodies when bind to RBC membrane (penicillin) or produce immune complexes

13

Differ warm and cold AIHA

Warm->IgG, forms at core temperature. Management with steroids/immunosuppressants

Cold->IgM, complement binds at cold peripheries (usually associated with raynauds). management is to keep warm.

14

Causes of AIHA

Mostly idiopathic
May be due to myeloproliferative (CLL, lymphoma), autoimmune disease (SLE), following infections (mycoplasma, EBV)

15

Cause of Paroxysmal cold hemoglobulinuria

Viruses/syphillis
Donath-landsteiner antibodies sticking to RBCs in the cold, complement mediated self limiting hemolysis on re-warming.

16

Causes of MAHA

HUS
TTP
DIC
Pre-eclampsia
Eclampsia

17

PNH triad

Stem cell disorder->susceptible to complement destruction due to abnormal surface glucosylphosphatidylinositol
Hemolysis
Marrow failure
Thrombophilia

18

Poor outcome in PNH due to, mx

Visceral thrombosis
Pulmonary emboli

Anticoagulation
Stem cell transplant is curative

19

Hereditary causes of hemolysis

1) Enzyme
-> G6PD
->Pyruvate kinase deficiency
2) Membrane
->Spherocytosis
->Elliptocytosis