Flashcards in Alcohol Missuse Deck (19):
How much alcohol is 1 unit?
How do you calculate number of units?
e.g. 40% 750ml vodka
300/10 = 30 units
What does alcohol inhibit?
The action of excitatory NMDA-glutamate controlled ion channels
What does alcohol potentiate?
The actions of inhibitory GABA type A controlled ion channels
What does alcohol withdrawal lead to?
Excess glutamate activity and reduced GABA activity
What is excess glutamate toxic to?
The nerve cell
How long do symptoms of alcohol withdrawal take to present?
Within first hours
Peak at 24-48 hours
What are symptoms of alcohol withdrawal symptoms?
loss of appetite
How long do alcohol withdrawal symptoms take to resolve?
How does delirium tremens present?
Peak at 2 days
Insidious presentation often with night time confusion
Confusion, disorientation, agitation, hypertension, fever, visual and auditory hallucinations, paranoid ideation
What is the management of alcohol withdrawal?
What can be used as prophylaxis against Wernicke's Encepalopathy?
What are other additional features to the management of alcohol withdrawal?
Treat infections and other physical conditions
What is Disulfiram? (Antabuse)
Inhibits acetaldehyde dehydrogenase leading to accumulation of acetaldehyde if alcohol is ingested
What does Disulfiram lead to?
What does Acamprosate do?
Acts centrally on glutamate and GABA systems
What are side effects of Acamprosate?
What does Naltrexone do?
Opioid antagonist, reduces reward from alcohol
1st line for relapse prevention