Alcohol Missuse Flashcards Preview

Psychiatry > Alcohol Missuse > Flashcards

Flashcards in Alcohol Missuse Deck (19):
1

How much alcohol is 1 unit?

10ml

2

How do you calculate number of units?

%Xvolume/10
e.g. 40% 750ml vodka
0.4X750/10
300/10 = 30 units

3

What does alcohol inhibit?

The action of excitatory NMDA-glutamate controlled ion channels

4

What does alcohol potentiate?

The actions of inhibitory GABA type A controlled ion channels

5

What does alcohol withdrawal lead to?

Excess glutamate activity and reduced GABA activity

6

What is excess glutamate toxic to?

The nerve cell

7

How long do symptoms of alcohol withdrawal take to present?

Within first hours
Peak at 24-48 hours

8

What are symptoms of alcohol withdrawal symptoms?

Restlessness
Tremor
Sweating
Anxiety
N+V
loss of appetite
insomnia
Tachycardia
Systolic hypertension
Seizures
Delirium tremens

9

How long do alcohol withdrawal symptoms take to resolve?

5-7 days

10

How does delirium tremens present?

Peak at 2 days
Insidious presentation often with night time confusion
Confusion, disorientation, agitation, hypertension, fever, visual and auditory hallucinations, paranoid ideation

11

What is the management of alcohol withdrawal?

Benzodiazepines
Vitamins
Support

12

What can be used as prophylaxis against Wernicke's Encepalopathy?

Thiamine

13

What are other additional features to the management of alcohol withdrawal?

Adequate hydration
Analgesia
Antiemetics
Treat infections and other physical conditions
Environmental factors

14

What is Disulfiram? (Antabuse)

Inhibits acetaldehyde dehydrogenase leading to accumulation of acetaldehyde if alcohol is ingested

15

What does Disulfiram lead to?

Flushed skin
Tachycardia
N+V
arrhythmias
hypotension

16

What does Acamprosate do?

Acts centrally on glutamate and GABA systems
Reduces cravings

17

What are side effects of Acamprosate?

Headache
Diarrhoea
Nausea

18

What does Naltrexone do?

Opioid antagonist, reduces reward from alcohol
1st line for relapse prevention

19

What do benzodiazepines act on?

GABA A receptors