Basic Science of Pyschosis Flashcards Preview

Psychiatry > Basic Science of Pyschosis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Basic Science of Pyschosis Deck (40):
1

What is Grandiose delusion?

Delusions that they are superior to others lol trump and the tories

2

What are ideas of reference?

Idea that everything a person perceives is about them and their destiny

3

What are paranoid delusions?

False belief that everyone is against them (people talking in the corner, must be about me)

4

What are auditory hallucinations?

Hearing voices etc

5

What is loosening of associations?

Also known as Knights move thinking, frame of reference shifts from one sentence to the next

6

What are nihilistic delusions?

Belief that nothing really exists

7

What is flight of ideas?

A rapid shifting of ideas with only superficial connections between them

8

What are visual hallucinations?

Seeing things

9

What are functional hallucinations?

Experienced when the patient has a similar stimuli, e.g. auditory hallucinations when hearing running water

10

What is gustatory hallucination?

Hallucination of taste

11

What is passivity of thought?

Feeling of being controlled by some external force

12

What is thought insertion?

Someone is putting thoughts in my head

13

What is mind reading?

Belief they can read others thoughts

14

What is formal thought disorder?

Disorganised thinking
includes derailment, poverty of speech, tangentiality, illogicality, perseveration neologism and thought blocking

15

What is thought broadcasting?

Belief that others can read your thougths

16

What is the heritability of schizophrenia/psychosis?

78%?

17

What are risk factors for psychosis?

2nd trimester viral illness
Obstetric problems such as; pre-eclampsia, fetal hypoxia, emergency caesarian section

18

What increases the risk of schizophrenia by 50%?

Childhood viral CNS infection

19

What happens to the brain in schizophrenia?

Reduced Frontal lobe volume
Reduced Frontal lobe grey matter
Enlarged lateral ventricle volume

20

Where do patients with Schizophrenia have consistent volumetric reductions?

Temporal cortex - esp. superior temporal gyrus
Medial temporal lobe - esp. hippocampus

21

Where do patients with schizophrenia have variable volumetric reductions?

Oribitofrontal cortex
Parietal cortex, basal ganglia

22

What causes the loss of grey matter in Schizophrenia?

Reduced arborisation, not neuron loss.

23

In schizophrenia, when is grey matter reduction likely to be progressive?

In initial years of the illness

24

What is a popular way of investigating the brains white matter?

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)

25

What are the two more common measurements from Diffusion Tensor Imaging?

Fractional anisotropy (FA) - high numbers = healthy white matter tracts
Mean diffusivity (MD) - high numbers = less healthy white matter tracts

26

What DTI results are generally found in Schizophrenia?

Reduced FA and Increased MD

27

What may be the cause of the anisotropy abnormalities?

Myelin abnormalities

28

Is there disruption of the cerbral cortical cytoarchitecture?

Yes in the enterohinal cortex

29

What drug can make schizophrenia symptoms worse?

Amphetamine

30

What is schizophrenia believed to be related to?

Overactivity of dopamine pathways in the brain

31

What is involved in the Nigrostriatal Extrapyramidal motor system?

Dorsal striatum
Substantia nigra

32

What is involved in the Mesolimbic/Cortical motivation and reward systems?

Ventral tegmental area
Frontal cortex
Nucleus accumbens
Amygdala
Hippocampus

33

What do the D1 receptors (D1 and D5) stimulate?

cAMP

34

Describe the D2 receptors (D2, D3, D4)?

Inhibit Adenylyl Cyclase
Inhibit voltage gated-activated Ca2+ channels
Open K+ channels

35

Where is the receptor D1 and what are the agonist/antagonist for it?

Agonist- SKF82958
Antagonist- SCH23390
Region- Neostriatum, Cerebral cortex, Olfactory tubercle, nucleus accembens

36

Describe the D2 receptor?

Agonist- Bromocriptine
Antag- raclopride, haloperidol
Region- Neostriatum, olfactory tubercle, nucleus accumbens

37

Describe the D3 receptor?

Agonist- quinpirole, 7OH-DPAT
Antag- Raclopride
Region- Nucleus accumbens,island of Calleja

38

Describe the D4 receptor?

Agonist - NONE
Antag- Clozapine
Region- Midbrain, amygdala

39

Describe the D5 receptor?

Agonist- SKF38393
Antag- SCH23390
Region- Hippocampus, hypothalamus

40

Where are the D1 and D2 receptors also found?

In limbic and striatal areas.