Flashcards in Basic Science of Pyschosis Deck (40):
What is Grandiose delusion?
Delusions that they are superior to others lol trump and the tories
What are ideas of reference?
Idea that everything a person perceives is about them and their destiny
What are paranoid delusions?
False belief that everyone is against them (people talking in the corner, must be about me)
What are auditory hallucinations?
Hearing voices etc
What is loosening of associations?
Also known as Knights move thinking, frame of reference shifts from one sentence to the next
What are nihilistic delusions?
Belief that nothing really exists
What is flight of ideas?
A rapid shifting of ideas with only superficial connections between them
What are visual hallucinations?
What are functional hallucinations?
Experienced when the patient has a similar stimuli, e.g. auditory hallucinations when hearing running water
What is gustatory hallucination?
Hallucination of taste
What is passivity of thought?
Feeling of being controlled by some external force
What is thought insertion?
Someone is putting thoughts in my head
What is mind reading?
Belief they can read others thoughts
What is formal thought disorder?
includes derailment, poverty of speech, tangentiality, illogicality, perseveration neologism and thought blocking
What is thought broadcasting?
Belief that others can read your thougths
What is the heritability of schizophrenia/psychosis?
What are risk factors for psychosis?
2nd trimester viral illness
Obstetric problems such as; pre-eclampsia, fetal hypoxia, emergency caesarian section
What increases the risk of schizophrenia by 50%?
Childhood viral CNS infection
What happens to the brain in schizophrenia?
Reduced Frontal lobe volume
Reduced Frontal lobe grey matter
Enlarged lateral ventricle volume
Where do patients with Schizophrenia have consistent volumetric reductions?
Temporal cortex - esp. superior temporal gyrus
Medial temporal lobe - esp. hippocampus
Where do patients with schizophrenia have variable volumetric reductions?
Parietal cortex, basal ganglia
What causes the loss of grey matter in Schizophrenia?
Reduced arborisation, not neuron loss.
In schizophrenia, when is grey matter reduction likely to be progressive?
In initial years of the illness
What is a popular way of investigating the brains white matter?
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)
What are the two more common measurements from Diffusion Tensor Imaging?
Fractional anisotropy (FA) - high numbers = healthy white matter tracts
Mean diffusivity (MD) - high numbers = less healthy white matter tracts
What DTI results are generally found in Schizophrenia?
Reduced FA and Increased MD
What may be the cause of the anisotropy abnormalities?
Is there disruption of the cerbral cortical cytoarchitecture?
Yes in the enterohinal cortex
What drug can make schizophrenia symptoms worse?
What is schizophrenia believed to be related to?
Overactivity of dopamine pathways in the brain
What is involved in the Nigrostriatal Extrapyramidal motor system?
What is involved in the Mesolimbic/Cortical motivation and reward systems?
Ventral tegmental area
What do the D1 receptors (D1 and D5) stimulate?
Describe the D2 receptors (D2, D3, D4)?
Inhibit Adenylyl Cyclase
Inhibit voltage gated-activated Ca2+ channels
Open K+ channels
Where is the receptor D1 and what are the agonist/antagonist for it?
Region- Neostriatum, Cerebral cortex, Olfactory tubercle, nucleus accembens
Describe the D2 receptor?
Antag- raclopride, haloperidol
Region- Neostriatum, olfactory tubercle, nucleus accumbens
Describe the D3 receptor?
Agonist- quinpirole, 7OH-DPAT
Region- Nucleus accumbens,island of Calleja
Describe the D4 receptor?
Agonist - NONE
Region- Midbrain, amygdala
Describe the D5 receptor?
Region- Hippocampus, hypothalamus