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Organic Chemistry Year 2 > aldehydes and ketones > Flashcards

Flashcards in aldehydes and ketones Deck (19)
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1

what is the carbonyl group

C = O

2

what is the functional group and general formula for an aldehyde

RCHO

3

what is the functional group for a ketone

RCOR'

4

how do you name aldehydes

-al

5

how do you name ketones

-one

6

what kind of intermolecular forces do molecules with the carbonyl group have

permanent dipole-dipole due to the polar C=O

7

how soluble are they in water

yes, form hydrogen bonds between water molecules and oxygen of C=O
as C chain length increases, solubility decreases

8

which bond is usually involved in reactions

C=O due to the polarity of the bond

9

why is the addition of HCN important

increases the length of the carbon chain by one carbon atom

10

will the product of HCN added to a carbonyl compound have optical isomers

yes as the CN- can attack from either above or below

11

what is the name of the product when HCN is added to a carbonyl compound

hydroxynitriles

12

what is Fehling's solution

copper complex ions
blue

13

what happens when an aldehyde is added to fehling's solution

reduced to Cu+ ions
brick red ppt

14

what happens when a ketone is added to fehlings solution

stays blue

15

what is in tollen's reagent

silver complex ions
colourless

16

what happens when an aldehyde is added to tollen's reagent

silver mirror forms as Ag+ reduced to Ag

17

what happens when a ketone is added to tollens reagent

no visible change

18

name an oxidising agent for alcohols and aldehydes

potassium dichromate
H2SO4
orange to green

19

what is a reducing agent for aldehydes and ketones

NaBH4
releases H- ions