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Flashcards in Transformations Deck (27)
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1

Alkene to Poly(alkene)

High pressure
Catalyst

2

Alkene to dihalogenoalkane

Br2 Cl2
Room temperature
Electrophilic addition

3

Dihalogenoalkane to diol

KOH aqueous
Heat under reflux
Nucleophilic substitution

4

Alkene to alcohol

H2SO4
Electrophilic addition
Warm H2O
Hydrolysis

5

Alcohol to alkene

Conc H2SO4 or conc H3PO4
Elimination
Dehydration

6

Halogenoalkane to alkene

KOH alcoholic
Heat under reflux
Elimination

7

Alkene to halogenoalkane

HBr, HCl
Room temperature
Electrophilic addition

8

Alkane to halogenoalkane

Br2 , Cl2
Uv light
Free radical substitution

9

Halogenoalkane to alcohol

Aqueous KOH
Heat under reflux
Nucleophilic substitution

10

Aldehyde to alcohol

NaBH4
Nucleophilic addition

11

Alcohol to aldehyde

Na2Cr2O7 /H+
Heat and distill
Partially oxidise

12

Alcohol to ketone

Na2Cr2O7 /H+
Heat
Oxidation

13

Ketone to alcohol

NaBH4
Nucleophilic addition

14

Halogenoalkane to nitrile

KCN in ethanol water mixture
Heat under reflux
Nucleophilic substitution

15

Halogenoalkane to primary amine

Alcoholic NH3
Heat under reflux
Pressure
Nucleophilic substitution

16

Alcohol to ester

Carboxylic acid and H2SO4
Heat
Esterification

17

Nitrile to primary amine

LiAlH4 in ether
Reduction

18

Aldehyde to carboxylic acid

Na2Cr2O7 /H+
Heat under reflux
Excess oxidising agent
Oxidation

19

Aldehyde to hydroxynitrile

NaCN H2SO4
Nucleophilic addition

20

Ketone to hydroxynitrile

NaCN H2SO4
Nucleophilic addition

21

Primary amine to secondary/tertiary amine or quaternary salt

Haloalkane
Nucleophilic substitution

22

Primary amine to secondary amide

Acupuncture chloride
Room temperature
Nucleophilic addition elimination

23

Carboxylic acid to Ester

Alcohol and H2SO4
Heat
Esterification

24

Acyl chloride/ acid anhydride to carboxylic acid

H2O
Room temperature
Nucleophilic addition elimination

25

Acyl chloride/ acid anhydride to Ester

Alcohol
Room temperature
Nucleophilic addition elimination

26

Acyl chloride/ acid anhydride to secondary amide

Primary amine
Room temperature
Nucleophilic addition elimination

27

Acyl chloride/ acid anhydride to primary amide

NH3
Room temperature
Nucleophilic addition elimination